Main Points on Vacancies Decay Theory



A vacancy created in any atomic shell, except of the outermost one, can decay or undergo a transition into other states with one or more vacancies.


Auger Electron Satellite State Spectroscopic Factor Magnetic Quantum Number Auger Decay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 5.1.
    Amusia MYa, Kazachkov MP, Cherepkov NA, Chernysheva LV (1972) Many-electron correlations in the processes of inner shell vacancies decay. Phys Lett A 39(2):93–94Google Scholar
  2. 5.2.
    Svensson S, Eriksson B, Martensson N, Wendin G, Gelius U (1988) Electron shake-up and correlation satellites and continuum shake-off distributions in X-ray photoelectron spectra of rare gas atoms. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 47:327–384Google Scholar
  3. 5.3.
    Svensson S, Mårtensson N, Gelius U (1987) Observation of autoionizing resonances in core-electron shakeup spectra. Phys Rev Lett 58:2639–2641Google Scholar
  4. 5.4.
    Krause MO, Whitfield SB, Caldwell CD, Wu JZ, Van der Meulen P, de Lange CA, Hansen RWC (1992) Outer ns, np correlation satellites in rare gases—a photoelectron spectroscopy study with an undulator photon source. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 58:79–104Google Scholar
  5. 5.5.
    Pahler M, Caldwell CD, Schaphorst SJ, Krause MO (1993) Intrinsic line widths of neon \(2s2p{(}^{1,3}P)n{l}^{2}L\) correlation satellites. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 26:1617–1625Google Scholar
  6. 5.6.
    Kikas A, Osborne SJ, Ausmees A, Svensson S, Sairanen OP, Askela S (1996) High-resolution study of the correlation satellites in photoelectron spectra of rare gases. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 77:241–266Google Scholar
  7. 5.7.
    Cowan RD (1981) The theory of atomic structure and spectra. Los Alamos Series in Basic and Applied Sciences. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 650Google Scholar
  8. 5.8.
    Amusia MYa, Cherepkov NA, Chernysheva LV, Shapiro SG (1974) Elastic scattering of slow electrons and level shifts in Ar. Phys Lett A 46 (6):387–388Google Scholar
  9. 5.9.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Lee IS (1985) Three-electron auger-decay in atoms. Opt Spectrosc 59(2):261–264 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. 5.10.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS (1993) Decay of highly excited atomic states. In: Walters H, Hansch TW, Neizerk B (eds) Atomic physics 13, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol 275. New York, pp 375–387Google Scholar
  11. 5.11.
    Amusia MYa, Cherepkov NA (1975) Many-electron correlations in scattering processes. Case Stud Atom Phys 5(2):47–179Google Scholar
  12. 5.12.
    Kovalcyk SP, Ley L, Martin RL, Mcfeely FR, Shirley DA (1975) Relaxation and final-state structure in XPS of atoms molecules and metals. Faraday Discuss Chem Soc 60:7–17Google Scholar
  13. 5.13.
    Wendin G (1981) Breakdown of one-electron picture in photoelectron spectra. Structure and bonding, vol 45. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–123Google Scholar
  14. 5.14.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Teterin YuA, Sosulnikov MI (1992) Dynamic dipolar relaxation in X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ba4p subshell in barium compounds. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 59:211–222Google Scholar
  15. 5.15.
    Tagliaferri A, Braicovich L, van der Laan G, Ghiringhelli G, Brookes NB, Dallera C, Finazzi M, Weschke E, Hu Z, Kaindl G (1999) Many-body effects in non-resonant and resonant 4p spectroscopy of Gd meta. Phys Rev B 60:5728–5736Google Scholar
  16. 5.16.
    March NH, Young WH, Sampanthar S (1995) Many-body problem in quantum mechanics. Courier Dover Publ., New York, p 459Google Scholar
  17. 5.17.
    Amusia MYa, Kheifets AS (1984) The influence of many-electron effects on atomic photoelectron spectrum. JETP 86:1217–1226 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. 5.18.
    Galitsky VM, Migdal AB (1958) Application of quantum field theory to the many-body problem. JETP 34:139–150 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. 5.19.
    Abrikosov AA, Dzyaloshinski IE, Gorkov LP (1965) Methods of quantum field theory in statistical physics, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, NJ, p 365 (International series of monographs in natural philosophy, vol 4)Google Scholar
  20. 5.20.
    Kheifets AS, Amusia MYa, Yarzhemsky VG (1985) On the validity of the quasi-particle approximation in photoelectron spectroscopy. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 18:L343–L350Google Scholar
  21. 5.21.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Armen GB, Larkins FP (1993) Calculation of the shake-up satellites in the 1s and 2s X-ray photoelectron spectra on neon. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 26:2785–2794Google Scholar
  22. 5.22.
    Jucys AP, Levinsonas JB, Vanagas VV (1962) Mathematical apparatus of the theory of angular momentum. Olborne, London, p 158Google Scholar
  23. 5.23.
    Balcar E, Lovesey SW (2009) Introduction to the graphical theory of angular momentum. Springer, Heidelberg, p 227Google Scholar
  24. 5.24.
    Judd BR (1967) Second quantization and atomic spectroscopy. John Hopkins, Baltimore, p 62Google Scholar
  25. 5.25.
    Lindgren I, Morrison J (1982) Atomic many-body theory. Springer, Berlin, p 254Google Scholar
  26. 5.26.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Nefedov VI, Trzhaskovskaya MB, Band IM, Szargan R (2002) The influence core hole relaxation on the main line intensities in X-ray photoelectron spectra. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 123:1–10Google Scholar
  27. 5.27.
    Walters DL, Bhalla CP (1971) Nonrelativistic Auger rates, X-ray rates, and fluorescence yields for the K shell. Phys Rev A 3:1919–1927Google Scholar
  28. 5.28.
    Manne R, Åberg T (1970) Koopmans theorem for inner-shell photoionization. Chem Phys Lett 7:282–284Google Scholar
  29. 5.29.
    Tulkki J, Åberg T, Mäntykenttä A, Aksela H (1992) Relativistic multichannel calculation of the NeKLL and Ar \({L}_{2}{M}_{2,3}{M}_{2,3}\) Auger transition rates. Phys Rev A 43:1357–1366Google Scholar
  30. 5.30.
    Armen GB, Larkins FP (1991) Valence Auger and X-ray participator and spectator processes for neon and argon atoms. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 24:741–759Google Scholar
  31. 5.31.
    Armen GB, Larkins FP (1992) Valence-multiplet Auger decay of the doubly excited [νp2] states of neon and argon. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 25:931–947Google Scholar
  32. 5.32.
    Albiez A, Toma M, Weber W, Mehlhorn W (1990) KL 2, 3 ionization in neon by electron impact in the range 1.5–50 keV: cross-section and alignment. Z Phys D 16:97–106Google Scholar
  33. 5.33.
    Shirley DA (1987) High-resolution X-ray photoemission spectra of the valence bands of gold. Phys Rev B 5:4709–4714Google Scholar
  34. 5.34.
    Seah MP, Gilmore IS (2006) Quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: quadruple effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true X-ray photoelectron spectra. Phys Rev B 73:174113-1–10Google Scholar
  35. 5.35.
    Lagutin BM, Petrov ID, Sukhorukov VL, Whitfield SB, Langer B, Viefhaus J, Wehlitz R, Berrah N, Mahler W, Becker U (1996) Cross-sections and angular distributions of the photoelectron correlation satellites of the Xe atom. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 29:937–976Google Scholar
  36. 5.36.
    Doniah S, Sunjic M (1970) Many-electron singularity in X-ray photoemission and X-ray line spectra from metal. J Phys C 3:285–291Google Scholar
  37. 5.37.
    Hufner S, Wertheim GK (1975) Core-line asymmetries in X-ray photoemission spectra of metals. Phys Rev B 11:678–683Google Scholar
  38. 5.38.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Kolotyrkin IYa, Kaplan IG, Zhdan PA (1990) The use of asymmetric functions for the decomposition of X-ray spectra of the solid surface. Poverkhnost 2: 141–146 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. 5.39.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Reich T, Chernysheva LV, Streubel P, Szargan R (1996) Line shape asymmetry parameters in X-ray photoelectron spectra. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 77:15–24Google Scholar
  40. 5.40.
    Sherwood PMA (1996) Curve fitting in surface analysis and the effect of background inclusion in the fitting process. J Vac Sci Technol A 14:1424–1432Google Scholar
  41. 5.41.
    Glans P, LaVilla RE, Ohno M, Svennson S, Bray G, Wassdahl N, Nordgren J (1994) Determination of the lifetime width of the argon L 1-hole state. Phys Rev A 47:1539–1542Google Scholar
  42. 5.42.
    Karim KR, Chen MH, Craseman B (1984) Effect of exchange, electron correlation and relaxation on the \({L}_{1}\,-\,{L}_{23}{M}_{1}\) Coster–Kronig spectrum of argon. Phys Rev A 29: 2605–2610Google Scholar
  43. 5.43.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Kheifets AS, Armen GB, Larkins FP (1995) Line widths and intensities of satellites in photoelectron spectra in the presence of underlying continuum. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 28:2105–2112Google Scholar
  44. 5.44.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Larkins FP (1998) Lineshapes of Auger decay of excited atomic states. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 96:149–156Google Scholar
  45. 5.45.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Larkins FP (1999) The shapes of Auger decay lines in photoelectron satellite spectra. Eur Phys J D 5:179–184Google Scholar
  46. 5.46.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Nefedov VI, Amusia MYa, Chernysheva LV (2002) The shapes of photoelectron satellite spectra. Surface Rev Lett 9:1209–1212Google Scholar
  47. 5.47.
    Svennson S, Martensson N, Basilier E, Malmquist PA, Gelius U, Siegbahn K (1976) Lifetime broadening and CI-resonances observed in ESCA. Phys Scripta 14:141–147Google Scholar
  48. 5.48.
    Ohno M, Wendin G (1987) Dynamic screening and interference effects in X-ray and Auger emission spectra. Z Phys D 5:233–240Google Scholar
  49. 5.49.
    Boring M, Cowan RD, Martin RL (1981) Satellite structure in the 5p and 5s X-ray-photoelectron spectra of the actinides. Phys Rev B 23:445–448Google Scholar
  50. 5.50.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Teterin YuA, Teterin AYu, Amusia MYa, Nefedov VI (2005) The structure of 4p X-ray photoelectron spectra of Xe and compounds of Cs, Ba, Ln. J Surface Invest X-ray Synchrotr Neutron Techn 6:3–8 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. 5.51.
    Grant IP (1970) Relativistic calculation of atomic structure. Adv Phys 19:747–811Google Scholar
  52. 5.52.
    Lindgren I, Rosen A (1974) Relativistic self-consistent field with application to hyperfine interactions. Part I: Relativistic self-consistent fields. Case Stud At Phys 4:97–149Google Scholar
  53. 5.53.
    Chernysheva LV, Yakhontov VL (1999) Two-program package to calculate the ground and excited state wave functions in the Hartree–Fock–Dirac approximation. Comp Phys Commun 119:232–255Google Scholar
  54. 5.54.
    Grant IP (1974) Gauge invariance of relativistic radiative transitions. Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 7:1458–1475Google Scholar
  55. 5.55.
    Scofield JH (1969) Radiative decay rates of vacancies in K and L shells. Phys Rev 179:9–16Google Scholar
  56. 5.56.
    Scofield JH (1974) Exchange corrections to K X-ray emission rates. Phys Rev A 9: 1041–1049Google Scholar
  57. 5.57.
    Scofield JH (1974) Relativistic Hartree–Slater values for K and L X-ray emission rates. At Data Nucl Data Tab 14:121–137Google Scholar
  58. 5.58.
    Chen MH, Craseman B (1981) Widths and fluorescence yields of atomic L-shell vacancy states. Phys Rev A 24:177–182Google Scholar
  59. 5.59.
    Chen MH, Craseman B (1983) Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac–Fock wave functions. Phys Rev A 28:2829–2837Google Scholar
  60. 5.60.
    Chen MH, Craseman B (1984) M X-ray emission rates in Dirac–Fock approximation. Phys Rev A 30:170–176Google Scholar
  61. 5.61.
    Trzhaskovskaya MB, Nikulin VK, Nefedov VI, Yarzhemsky VG (2001) Relativistic photoelectron angular distribution parameters in quadrupole approximation. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 34:3221–3237Google Scholar
  62. 5.62.
    Krause MO, Carlson TA, Moddeman WE (1971) Manifestation of atomic dynamics through the Auger effect. J de Phys 32:C4-139–C4-144Google Scholar
  63. 5.63.
    Huang KN (1978) Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 11:787–795Google Scholar
  64. 5.64.
    Bhalla CP (1973) Effect of configuration interaction of K-shell Auger spectrum of neon. Phys Lett A 44:103–104Google Scholar
  65. 5.65.
    Kelly HP (1975) K Auger rates calculated for Ne + . Phys Rev A 11:556–565Google Scholar
  66. 5.66.
    Howat G, Åberg T, Goscinski O (1978) Relaxation and final-state channel mixing in the Auger effect. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 11:1575–1588Google Scholar
  67. 5.67.
    Chen MH, Larkins FP, Crasemann B (1990) Auger and Coster–Kronig radial matrix elements for atomic numbers \(6 \leq Z \leq \) 92. At Data Nucl Data Tab 45:1–205Google Scholar
  68. 5.68.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Sgamellotti A (2002) Auger rates of second row atoms calculated by many-body perturbation theory. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 125:13–24Google Scholar
  69. 5.69.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS, Wehlitz R, Becker UJ (1993) Evidence for a new class of many-electron Auger-transitions in atoms. Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 26:41–46Google Scholar
  70. 5.70.
    Becker U, Wehlitz R (1994) Auger spectroscopy at low kinetic energies. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 67:341–361Google Scholar
  71. 5.71.
    Yarzhemsky VG, Amusia MYa, Chernysheva LV (2002) Lineshape of Ne1s photoionization satellite [1s2s](3 S)3s and its valence Auger decay spectrum. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 127:153–159Google Scholar
  72. 5.72.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS, Kilin VA (1992) Double Auger decay of atoms: probability and angular distributions. Phys Rev A 45:4576–4587Google Scholar
  73. 5.73.
    Kochur AG, Sukhorukov VL (1996) Low-energy Auger spectra of xenon emitted by vacancy cascade following inner-shell ionization. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 29:3587–3598Google Scholar
  74. 5.74.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Lee IS (1984) Double Auger-decay of two K-vacancies in Ne. J Tech Phys 54(5):990–992Google Scholar
  75. 5.75.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS (1991) Correlated decay of two vacancies in atoms. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 24:2617–2632Google Scholar
  76. 5.76.
    Amusia MYa (1979) Single-photon and single-electron decay of double vacancy states in atoms. Comm At Mol Phys 9(1):23–34Google Scholar
  77. 5.77.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1984) Deepening of vacancies in correlation decays of two-hole atomic states. Lett J Tech Phys 10(17):1029–1033 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  78. 5.78.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1985) Contrary movement of vacancies in correlation decays of double hole states. Lett J Tech Phys 11(6):343–346 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  79. 5.79.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1987). Low-energy correlation satellites in two-vacancy atoms. Lett J Tech Phys 57(7):1246–1254 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. 5.80.
    Amusia MYa, Kilin VA, Lee IS (1992) The decay of an electron-vacancy excitation in the presence of another vacancy. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 25(3):657–666Google Scholar
  81. 5.81.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS (1992) Radiative semi-Auger decay in atoms. Phys Scripta 41:23–27Google Scholar
  82. 5.82.
    Amusia MYa, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1988) Radiative semi-auger satellites in the X-ray spectra. J Tech Phys (USSR Acad Sci) 58(3):442–451Google Scholar
  83. 5.83.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS, Zinoviev AN (1977) Single photon decay of double hole states in atoms. Phys Lett A 60(4):300–302Google Scholar
  84. 5.84.
    Amusia MYa, Lee IS (1977) Single-photon decay of two-hole atomic states. JETP 73 2(8):430–437Google Scholar
  85. 5.85.
    Amusia MYa, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1987) Cooperative decays of two-vacancy states. J Tech Phys (USSR Acad Sci) 57(6):1228–1229Google Scholar
  86. 5.86.
    Amusia MYa, Kolesnikova AN, Lee IS (1986) Radiation of low-energy photons in combined decay of two vacancies. Izv USSR Acad Sci Ser Phys 50(7):1279–1284Google Scholar
  87. 5.87.
    Flugge S, Mehlhorn W, Schmidt V (1972) Angular distribution of Auger electrons following photoionization. Phys Rev Lett 29:7–9Google Scholar
  88. 5.88.
    McFarlane SC (1972) The polarization of characteristic x-radiation excited be electron impact. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 5:1906–1915Google Scholar
  89. 5.89.
    Cleff B, Mehlhorn W (1974) On the angular distribution of Auger electrons following impact ionization. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 7:593–604Google Scholar
  90. 5.90.
    Berezhko EG, Kabachnik NM (1977) Theoretical study of inner-shell alignment of atoms in electron impact ionization: angular distribution and polarization of X-rays and Auger electrons. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 10:2467–2477Google Scholar
  91. 5.91.
    Kabachnik NM, Sazhina IP (2002) Spin polarization of Auger electrons from the decay of a j = 3 ∕ 2 vacancy. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 35:3591–3598Google Scholar
  92. 5.92.
    Lohman B, Hergenhahn U, Kabachnik NM (1993) Spin polarization of Auger electrons from noble gases after photoionization with circularly polarized light. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 26:3327–3338Google Scholar
  93. 5.93.
    Kabachnik NM, Sazhina IP (1984) Angular distribution and spin polarization of Auger electrons. J Phys B At Mol Opt Phys 17:1335–1342Google Scholar
  94. 5.94.
    Balashov VV, Grum-Grzhimailo AN, Kabachnik NM (2000) Polarization and correlation phenomena in atomic collisions. A practical theory course. Plenum, New York, p 243Google Scholar
  95. 5.95.
    Amusia MYa, Baltenkov AS (2006) Vacancy decay in endohedral atoms. Phys Rev A 73:063206Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Racah Institute of PhysicsThe Hebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Ioffe Physica-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic ChemistryMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations