Advertisement

Eye

  • Peter Spieler
  • Matthias Rössle
Part of the Essentials of Diagnostic Pathology book series (ESSENTPATH)

Abstract

Normal cytology, non-tumorous disorders, and selected neoplastic lesions are discussed occurring in the different compartments of the globe. Special attention is focused on cytology of the vitreous body. A short overview is provided on common disorders of the orbital cavity, of lacrimal glands and eyelid. Various sampling techniques and sample preparation methods are also described.

Keywords

Pleomorphic Adenoma Lacrimal Gland Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Ciliary Body Uveal Melanoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Aksünger A, Unlü K, Karakas N, et al. Impression cytology, tear film break up, and Schirmer test in patients with inactive trachoma. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1997;41:305-307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Augsburger JJ. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected metastatic cancers to the posterior uvea. Trans Am Ophtalmol Soc 1988;86:499-560.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Augsburger JJ, Shields JA. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of solid intraocular tumors: indications, instrumentation and techniques. Ophthalmic Surg 1984;15:34-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Augsburger JJ, Shields JA, Folberg R, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of intraocular cancer. Cytologic-histologic correlations. Ophthalmology 1985;92:39-49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Augsburger JJ, Correa ZM, Schneider S, et al. Diagnostic transvitreal fine-needle aspiration biopsy of small melanocytic choroidal tumors in nevus versus melanoma category. Trans Am Ophtalmol Soc 2002;100:225-232.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baggetto LG, Gambrelle J, Dayan G, et al. Major cytogenetic aberrations and typical multidrug resistance phenotype of uveal melanoma: current views and new therapeutic prospects. Cancer Treat Rev 2005;31:361-379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker SE, Singh AD, Fu E, et al. The role of fine needle aspiration in the evaluation of uveal tumors: A clinicopathologic analysis of 26 consecutive cases. Cancer Cytopathol 2008;114:357-358.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bardenstein DS, Char DH, Jones C, et al. Metastatic ciliary body carcinoid tumor. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108:1590-1594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bernardini FP, Devoto MH, Croxatto JO. Epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland: an update. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2008;19:409-413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Block RS, Gartner S. The incidence of ocular metastatic carcinoma. Arch Opthalmol 1971;85:673-675.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boccato P, Blandamura S, Midena E, Carollo C. Orbital ectopic lacrimal gland tissue simulating a neoplasm. Report of a case with fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis. Acta Cytol 1992;36:737-743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown HH, Glasgow BJ, Holland GN, Foos RY. Keratinizing corneal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cornea 1989;8:220-224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butrus SI,Abelson MP. Laboratory evaluation of ocular allergy. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1988;28:324-328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butrus S, Portela R. Ocular allergy: diagnosis and treatment. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 2005;18:485-492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cahill MT, Moriarty PM, Mooney DJ, Kennedy SM. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the eyelid. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;127:463-464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell DG, Essigmann EM. Hemolytic ghost cell glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:2141-2146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cangiarella JF, Cajigas A, Savala E, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of orbital masses. Acta Cytol 1996;40:1205-1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Char DH. Ocular melanoma. Surg Clin North Am 2003;83:253-274, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Char DH, Miller TR. Fine needle biopsy in retinoblastoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1984;97:686-690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Char DH, Miller T. Orbital pseudotumor. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy and response to therapy. Ophthalmology 1993;100:1702-1710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Char DH, Kemlitz AE, Miller T. Intraocular biopsy. Ophthalmol Clin N Am 2005;18:177-185.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Char DH, Miller TR, Crawford JB. Cytopathologic diagnosis of benign lesions simulating choroidal melanomas. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;112:70-75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Char DH, Miller T, Kroll S. Orbital metastases: diagnosis and course. Br J Ophthalmol 1997;81:386-390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Char DH, Miller TR, Ljung BM, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in uveal melanoma. Acta Cytol 1989;33:599-605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen ZQ, Fang XY. Adenoma of nonpigmented epithelium in ciliary body: literature review and case report. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2007;8:612-615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coupland SE, Anastassiou G, Bornfeld N, et al. Primary intraocular lymphoma of T-cell type: report of a case and review of the literature. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2005;243:189-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coupland SE, Bechrakis NE, Anastassiou G, et al. Evaluation of vitrectomy specimens and chorioretinal biopsies in the diagnosis of primary intraocular lymphoma in patients with Masquerade syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003;241:860-870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cristallini EG, Bolis GB, Ottaviano P. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of orbital meningioma. Acta cytol 1990;34:236-238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cvenkel B, Globocnik M. Conjunctival scrapings and impression cytology in chronic conjunctivitis. Correlation with microbiology. Eur J Ophthalmol 1997;7:19-23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Czerniak B, Woyke S, Domagala W, Krzysztolik Z. Fine needle aspiration cytology of intraocular malignant melanoma. Acta Cytol 1983;27:157-165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Darville T. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005;16:235-244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Das DK, Das J, Bhatt NC, et al. Orbital lesions. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 1994;38:158-164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davila RM, Miranda MC, Smith ME. Role of cytopathology in the diagnosis of ocular malignancies. Acta Cytol 1998;42:362-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davis JL. Diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2004;12:7-16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Davis JL, Miller DM, Ruiz P. Diagnostic testing of vitrectomy specimens. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140:822-829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davis JL, Viciana AL, Ruiz P. Diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma by flow cytometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:362-372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    de Rivas P, Marti T, Andreu D, et al. Metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma of the iris and ciliary body.Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109:470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dewan S, Mittal S, D’Souza, Logani KB. Cytological evaluation of conjunctival scrape smears in cases of conjunctivitis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1992;35:118-124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dhaliwal U, Arora VK, Singh N, Bhatia A. Cytopathology of chalazia. Diagn Cytopathol 2004;31:118-122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Harazi SM, Kellaway J, Font RL. Melanocytoma of the ciliary body diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2000;22:394-397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Embong Z, Wan Hitam WH, Yean CY, et al. Specific detection of fungal pathogens by 18S rRNA gene PCR in microbial keratitis. BMC Ophthalmol 2008;8:7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farkas T, Harbour JW, Davila RM. Cytologic diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma in vitreous aspirates. Acta Cytol 2004;48:487-491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferry JA, Fung CY, Zukerberg L, et al. Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa:Astudy of 353 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:170-184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Finger PT, McCormick SA, Davidian M, Walsh JB. Adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1996;234 Suppl 1:S22-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fischler DF, Prayson RA. Cytologic specimens from the eye: a clinicopathologic study of 33 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 1997;17:262-266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Font RL, Croxato JO, Rao NA. AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, fourth series, Fasc 5. Tumors of the Eye and Ocular Adnexa. 2006.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Font RL, Yanoff M, Zimmerman LE. Intraocular adipose tissue and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Arch Ophthalmol 1969;82:43-50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gao L, Lin WH, Gong ZJ, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma and its differential diagnosis. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2004;33:36-39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Garbyal RS, Gupta P, Kumar M, et al. A cytologic perspective on meibomian gland carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2007;51:171-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Glasgow BJ. Intraocular fine-needle aspiration biopsy of coronal adenomas. Diagn Cytopathol 1991;7:239-242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glasgow BJ, Foos RY. Ocular Cytopathology. Butterworth-Heinemannn Boston, 1993.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Glasgow BJ, Layfield LJ. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of orbital and periorbital masses. Diagn Cytopathol 1991;7:132-141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gopal L, Babu EK, Gupta S, et al. Pigmented malignant medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2004;41:364-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gopinathan U, Garg P, Fernandes M, et al. The epidemiological features and laboratory results of fungal keratitis: a 10-year review at a referral eye care center in South India. Cornea 2002;21:555-559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grossniklaus HE, Frank KE, Farhi DC, et al. Hemoglobin spherulosis in the vitreous cavity. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:961-962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grossniklaus HE, Zimmermann LE, Kachmer ML. Pleomorphic adenocarcinoma of the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic features. Ophthalmology 1990;97:763-768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gupta N, Tandon R. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis. Indian J Ophthalmol 2008;56:209-213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gupta N, Bansal D, Saxena AK, et al. Primary orbital Ewing’s sarcoma presenting with unilateral proptosis. Cytopathology 2008;19:124-126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Holland D, Maune S, Kovacs G, Behrendt S. Metastatic tumors of the orbit. a retrospective study. Orbit 2003;22:15-24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Huerva V, Sanchez MC, Egido RM, Matias-Guiu X. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive myoepithelial component (myoepithelioma) of the lower eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;24:223-225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jain AK, Bansal R, Felcida V, Rajwanshi A. Evaluation of impression smear in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Indian J Ophthalmol 2007;55:33-36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jakobiec FA, Coleman DJ, Chattock A, Smith M. Ultrasonically guided needle biopsy and cytologic diagnosis of solid intraocular tumors. Ophthalmology 1979;86:1662-1681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kampik A, Kenyon KR, Michels RG, et al. Epiretinal and vitreous membranes. Comparative study of 56 cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1981;99:1445-1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Karcioglu ZA. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for retinoblastoma. Retina 2002;22:707-710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Karma A, von Willebrand EO, Tommila PV, et al. Primary intraocular lymphoma: Improving the diagnostic procedure. Ophthalmology 2007;114:1372-1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Laver NV, Rubinfeld RS, Baum M, de Brito PA. Cytomorphology of a mixed pigmented/nonpigmented pleomorphic adenoma of the ciliary body: a diagnostic pitfall in the evaluation of intraocular tumors. Diagn Cytopathol 1996;14:259-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee GA, Hirst LW. Retrospective study of ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1997;269-276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ljung BM, Char D, Miller TR, Deschenes J. Intraocular lymphoma. Cytologic diagnosis and the role of immunologic markers. Acta Cytol 1988;32:840-847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    LoRusso FJ, Boniuk M, Font RL. Melanocytoma (magnocellular nevus) of the ciliary body: report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Ophthalmology 2000;107:795-800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Malur PR, Bannur HB, Kodkany SB. Orbital Rosai-Dorfman disease: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology. Acta Cytol 2007;51:581-582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mehrotra R, Kumar S, Singh K, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of orbital meningioma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999;21:402-404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mehta JS, Abou-Rayyah Y, Rose GE. Orbital carcinoid metastases. Ophthalmology 2006;113:466-472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nadjari B, Kersten A, Ross B, et al. A cytologic and DNA cytometric diagnosis and therapy monitoring of squamous cell carcinoma in situ and malignant melanoma of the cornea and conjunctiva. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 1999;21:387-396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nassar DL, Raab SS, Silverman JF, et al. Fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of orbital hematolymphoid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol 2000;23:314-317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nicolo M, Nicolo G, Zingirian M. Pleomorphic adenocarcinoma of the ciliary epithelium: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, DNA-ploidy and comparative genomic hybridization analysis of an unusual case. Eur J Ophthalmol 2002 ;12:319-323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Okhravi N, Adamson P, Lightman S. Use of PCR in endophthalmitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2000;8:189-200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Poli T, Mora P, Reichegger V, et al. Surgical management of orbital malignant melanoma: our experience and a report of three cases. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2007;224:794-798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Polito E, Leccisotti A. Primary and secondary orbital melanomas: a clinical and prognostic study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1995;11:169-181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pollard ZF. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: diagnosis, treatment and results. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1997;95:487-549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ramulu P, Iliff NT, Green WR, Kuo IC. Asymptomatic conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma with presumed intraocular involvement. Cornea 2007;26:484-486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Reddy SC, Jackson N, Menon BS. Ocular involvement in leukemia - a study of 288 cases. Ophthalmologica 2003;217:441-445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rosenthal AR. Ocular manifestations of leukemia. A review. Ophthalmology 1983;90:899-905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rosenthal DL, Mandell DB, Glasgow BJ. ‘Eye, chapter 19’ , In: Comprehensive Cytopathology, ed: M.Bibbo, WB.Saunders Company Philadelphia. 1991.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Roussat B, Barbat V, Cantaloube C, et al. Persistent and hyperplastic primary vitreous syndrome. Clinical and therapeutic aspects. J Fr Ophthalmol 1998;21:501-507.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Saro F, Clua A, Esteva E, et al. Cytologic diagnosis of ocular melanocytoma. A case report. Acta Cytol 2008;52:87-90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sarraf D, Jain A, Dubovy S, et al. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with intraocular involvement. Retina 2005;25:94-98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schalenbourg A, Uffer S, Chamot L, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the nonpigmented ciliary body epithelium: report of a rare case. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol 1999;271:29-35.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Scroggs MW, Johnston WW, Klintworth GK. Intraocular tumors. A cytopathologic study. Acta Cytol 1990;34:401-408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Seal D, Reischl U, Behr A, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of endophthalmitis: comparison of microbiology and molecular methods in the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons multicenter study and susceptibility testing. J Cataract Refract Surg 2008;34:1439-1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Seitz B, Holbach LM, Naumann GO. Pilomatrixoma of the eyelids – clinical differential diagnosis and follow-up. Report of 17 patients. Ophthalmologe 1993;90:746-749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sen S, Singha U, Kumar H, et al. Diagnostic intraocular fine-needle aspiration biopsy - An experience in three cases of retinoblastoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999;21:331-334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Gopinathan U, et al. Evaluation of corneal scraping smear examination methods in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal keratitis: a survey of eight years of laboratory experience. Cornea 2002;21:643-647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shields JA, Demirci H, Marr BP, et al. Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelids: personal experience with 60 cases. Ophthalmology 2004;111:2151-2157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shields JA, Eagle RC Jr, Shields CL, De Potter P. Acquired neoplasms of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (adenoma and adenocarcinoma). Ophthalmology 1996;103:2007-2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shields JA, Eagle RC, Shields CL, Potter PD. Congenital neoplasms of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (medulloepithelioma). Ophthalmology 1996;103:1998-2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shields CL, Manchandia A, Subbiah R, et al. Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the conjunctiva in 5 cases. Ophthalmology 2008;115:1673-1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, De Potter P, Singh AD. Diagnosis and treatment of uveal melanoma. Semin Oncol 1996;23:763-767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, De Potter P. Observations on seven cases of intraocular leiomyoma. The 1993 Byron Demorest Lecture. Arch Ophthalmol 1994;112:521-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Ehya H, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of suspected intraocular tumors. The 1992 Urwick Lecture. Ophthalmology 1993;100:1677-1684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Gündüz K, Eagle RC Jr. Neoplasms of the retinal pigment epithelium: the 1998 Albert Ruedemann, Sr, memorial lecture, Part 2. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:601-608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Mercado G, et al. Adenoma of the iris pigment epithelium: a report of 20 cases: the 1998 Pan-American Lecture. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:736-741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Scartozzi R. Survey of 1264 patients with orbital tumors and simulating lesions: The 2002 Montgomery Lecture, part 1. Ophthalmology 2004;111:997-1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Siddaraju N, Solo S, Soundararaghavan J, Srinivasan R. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. Acta Cytol 2008;52:515-517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Singh R, Joseph A, Umapathy T, et al. Impression cytology of the ocular surface. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:1655-1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sternberg P Jr, Tiedman J, Hickingbotham D, et al. Controlled aspiration of subretinal fluid in the diagnosis of carcinoma metastatic to the choroid. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102:1622-1625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sturgis CD, Silverman JF, Kennerdell JS, Raab SS. Fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of primary epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland and ocular adnexa. Diagn Cytopathol 2001;24:86-89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Subramanian R, Solo S, Mishra MM, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary lymphoid lesions of the orbit: report of four cases. Acta Cytol 2007;51:417-420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wafi M, Rais L, Lahbil D, et al. A case of a retinitis pigmentosa and asteroid hyalosis. J Fr Ophthalmol 2004;27:801-804.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    White VA, Gascoyne RD, Paton KE. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect B- and T-cell gene rearrangements in vitreous specimens from patients with intraocular lymphoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:761-765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wilhelmus KR, Robinson NM, Tredici LL, Jones DB. Conjunctival cytology of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1986;104:691-693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wittenberg LA, Maberley DA, Ma PE, et al. Contribution of vitreous cytology to final clinical diagnosis. Fifteen-year review of vitreous cytology specimens from one institution. Ophthalmology 2008;115:1944-1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yakulis R, Dawson RR, Wang SE, Kennerdell JS. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of orbital plasmacytoma with amyloidosis. A case report. Acta Cytol 1995;39:104-110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yang JL, Schachter J, Moncada J, et al. Comparison of an rRNA-based and DNA-based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:293-295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yanoff M, Font RL. Intraocular cartilage in a microphthalmic eye of an otherwise healthy girl. Arch Ophthalmol 1969;81:238-240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Young TA, Burgess BL, Rao NP, et al. Transscleral fine-needle aspiration biopsy of macular choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2008;145:297-302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Young TA, Rao NP, Glasgow BJ, et al. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for monosomy 3 via 30-gauge fine-needle aspiration biopsy of choroidal melanoma in vivo. Ophthalmology 2007;114:142-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zaldivar RA, Martin DF, Holden JT, Grossniklaus HE. Primary intraocular lymphoma: clinical, cytologic, and flow cytometric analysis. Ophthalmology 2004;111:1762-1767.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Spieler
    • 1
  • Matthias Rössle
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für PathologieKantonsspital St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institut für Klinische PathologieUniversitätsSpital ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations