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Zusammenfassung

Die nekrotisierende Enterokolitis ist die klinisch wichtigste gastrointestinale Erkrankung des Neugeborenen, vor allem des Frühgeborenen. Selbst in der leichten Form stellt sie stets eine Notfallsituation dar. Neben schweren perakuten entzündlichen Veränderungen der Darmwand entstehen Koagulationsnekrosen, z. T. mit Perforationen. Betroffen sind vor allem das terminale Ileum und das angrenzende Kolon. Es kann aber der gesamte Gastrointestinaltrakt von der Erkrankung erfasst werden. Bislang gibt es keine eindeutige ätiologische Erklärung für die NEK, gleichwohl sind eine Reihe von pathogenetischen Risikofaktoren bekannt. Die Beschwerden können von Magenentleerungsstörungen und einem ausladenden Abdomen bis hin zu foudroyanten und letalen Verläufen reichen. Das therapeutische Vorgehen richtet sich nach der Schwere der Erkrankung: Nahrungskarenz, Entlastung des Gastrointestinaltrakts, antibiotische Therapie bis zur operativen Revision des betroffenen Darmabschnitts. Die Mortalität ist hoch, insbesondere bei extrem früh Geborenen.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert Müller
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, NeonatalogieKlinikum Kempten Oberallgäu gGmbHKemptenDeutschland

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