Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

  • Thomas Hildebrandt
  • Raghava Rao Mukkamala
  • Tijs Slaats
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7041)


We give a general technique for safe distribution of a declarative (global) process as a network of (local) synchronously communicating declarative processes. Both the global and local processes are given as Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs. DCR Graphs is a recently introduced declarative process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model. The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe. We prove that for any vector of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried out jointly with Exformatics A/S.


formal specification distributed synthesis cross-organizational workflow declarative processes process composition 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Weske, M.: The P2P Approach to Interorganizational Workflows. In: Dittrich, K.R., Geppert, A., Norrie, M.C. (eds.) CAiSE 2001. LNCS, vol. 2068, pp. 140–156. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bravetti, M., Tennenholtz, M.: Contract Based Multi-party Service Composition. In: Arbab, F., Sirjani, M. (eds.) FSEN 2007. LNCS, vol. 4767, pp. 207–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bravetti, M., Zavattaro, G.: A theory of contracts for strong service compliance. Mathematical. Structures in Comp. Sci. 19, 601–638 (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carbone, M., Honda, K., Yoshida, N.: Structured Communication-Centred Programming for Web Services. In: De Nicola, R. (ed.) ESOP 2007. LNCS, vol. 4421, pp. 2–17. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castellani, I., Mukund, M., Thiagarajan, P.: Synthesizing Distributed Transition Systems from Global Specifications. In: Pandu Rangan, C., Raman, V., Sarukkai, S. (eds.) FST TCS 1999. LNCS, vol. 1738, pp. 219–231. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohn, D., Hull, R.: Business artifacts: A data-centric approach to modeling business operations and processes. IEEE Data Eng. Bull. 32(3), 3–9 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Das, S., Kochut, K., Miller, J., Sheth, A., Worah, D.: Orbwork: A reliable distributed corba-based workflow enactment system for meteor2. Technical report, The University of Georgia (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fahland, D.: Towards analyzing declarative workflows. In: Autonomous and Adaptive Web Services (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fdhila, W., Godart, C.: Toward synchronization between decentralized orchestrations of composite web services. In: CollaborateCom 2009, pp. 1–10 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fdhila, W., Yildiz, U., Godart, C.: A flexible approach for automatic process decentralization using dependency tables. In: International Conference on Web Services (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fu, X., Bultan, T., Su, J.: Realizability of conversation protocols with message contents. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Web Services, ICWS 2004, p. 96. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heljanko, K., Stefanescu, A.: Complexity results for checking distributed implementability. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Application of Concurrency to System Design, pp. 78–87 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hildebrandt, T.: Trustworthy pervasive healthcare processes (TrustCare) research project. Webpage (2008),
  14. 14.
    Hildebrandt, T., Mukkamala, R.R.: Declarative event-based workflow as distributed dynamic condition response graphs. In: Post-proceedings of PLACES 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hildebrandt, T., Mukkamala, R.R.: Distributed dynamic condition response structures. In: Pre-proceedings of International Workshop on Programming Language Approaches to Concurrency and Communication-cEntric Software (PLACES 2010) (March 2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hildebrandt, T., Mukkamala, R.R., Slaats, T.: Designing a cross-organizational case management system using dynamic condition response graphs. In: Proceedings of IEEE International EDOC Conference (to appear, 2011),
  17. 17.
    Hildebrandt, T., Mukkamala, R.R., Slaats, T.: Nested dynamic condition response graphs. In: Proceedings of Fundamentals of Software Engineering (FSEN) (to appear, April 2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hildebrandt, T., Sassone, V.: Comparing transition systems with independence and asynchronous transition systems. In: Montanari, U., Sassone, V. (eds.) CONCUR 1996. LNCS, vol. 1119, pp. 84–97. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khalaf, R., Leymann, F.: Role-based decomposition of business processes using BPEL. In: International Conference on Web Services, ICWS 2006, pp. 770–780 (September 2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kindler, E., Martens, A., Reisig, W.: Inter-operability of Workflow Applications: Local Criteria for Global Soundness. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., Desel, J., Oberweis, A. (eds.) BPM. LNCS, vol. 1806, pp. 235–253. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martens, A.: Analyzing Web Service Based Business Processes. In: Cerioli, M. (ed.) FASE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3442, pp. 19–33. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Milosevic, Z., Sadiq, S., Orlowska, M.: Towards a Methodology for Deriving Contract-Compliant Business Processes. In: Dustdar, S., Fiadeiro, J.L., Sheth, A.P. (eds.) BPM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4102, pp. 395–400. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mitra, S., Kumar, R., Basu, S.: Optimum decentralized choreography for web services composition. In: Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, vol. 2 (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mohan, C., Agrawal, D., Alonso, G., El Abbadi, A., Guenthoer, R., Kamath, M.: Exotica: a project on advanced transaction management and workflow systems. SIGOIS Bull. 16, 45–50 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Montali, M.: Specification and Verification of Declarative Open Interaction Models. LNBIP, vol. 56. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mukkamala, R.R., Hildebrandt, T.: From dynamic condition response structures to büchi automata. In: Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE 2010) (August 2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mukund, M.: From global specifications to distributed implementations. In: Synthesis and Control of Discrete Event Systems. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mukund, M., Nielsen, M.: Ccs, locations and asynchronous transition systems. In: Shyamasundar, R. (ed.) FSTTCS 1992. LNCS, vol. 652, pp. 328–341. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nanda, M.G., Chandra, S., Sarkar, V.: Decentralizing execution of composite web services. SIGPLAN Not. 39, 170–187 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    OASIS WSBPEL Technical Committee. Web Services Business Process Execution Language, version 2.0 (2007),
  31. 31.
    Paul, S., Park, E., Chaar, J.: Rainman: a workflow system for the internet. In: Proceedings of the USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems on USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems (1997)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ranno, F., Shrivastava, S.K.: A review of distributed workflow management systems. In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Work Activities Coordination and Collaboration (1999)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reichert, M.U., Bauer, T., Dadam, P.: Flexibility for distributed workflows. In: Handbook of Research on Complex Dynamic Process Management: Techniques for Adaptability in Turbulent Environments, pp. 137–171. IGI Global, Hershey (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reichert, M., Bauer, T.: Supporting Ad-Hoc Changes in Distributed Workflow Management Systems. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z. (eds.) OTM 2007, Part I. LNCS, vol. 4803, pp. 150–168. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rinderle, S., Wombacher, A., Reichert, M.: Evolution of Process Choreographies in DYCHOR. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z. (eds.) OTM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4275, pp. 273–290. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sadiq, W., Sadiq, S., Schulz, K.: Model driven distribution of collaborative business processes. In: IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, 2006. SCC 2006, pp. 281–284 (September 2006)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sassone, V., Nielsen, M., Winskel, G.: A classification of models for concurrency. In: Best, E. (ed.) CONCUR 1993. LNCS, vol. 715, pp. 82–96. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sassone, V., Nielsen, M., Winskel, G.: Models for concurrency: Towards a classification. Theoretical Computer Science 170, 297–348 (1996)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wheater, S.M., Shrivastava, S.K., Ranno, F.: A corba compliant transactional workflow system for internet applications. In: Proc. of IFIP Intl. Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing, Middleware 1998, pp. 1–85233. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    ter Hofstede, A., van Glabbeek, R., Stork, D.: Query Nets: Interacting Workflow Modules That Ensure Global Termination. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Weske, M. (eds.) BPM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2678, pp. 184–199. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Interorganizational workflows: An approach based on message sequence charts and petri nets. Systems Analysis - Modelling - Simulation 34(3), 335–367 (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Lohmann, N., Massuthe, P., Stahl, C., Wolf, K.: Multiparty Contracts: Agreeing and Implementing Interorganizational Processes. The Computer Journal 53(1), 90–106 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Pesic, M., Schonenberg, H.: Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support. Computer Science - R&D 23(2), 99–113 (2009)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Pesic, M.: A declarative approach for flexible business processes management. In: Eder, J., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM Workshops 2006. LNCS, vol. 4103, pp. 169–180. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Pesic, M.: DecSerFlow: Towards a Truly Declarative Service Flow Language. In: Bravetti, M., Núñez, M., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) WS-FM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4184, pp. 1–23. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Inheritance of interorganizational workflows: How to agree to disagree without loosing control? Information Technology and Management 4, 345–389 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Winskel, G.: Event structures. In: Brauer, W., Reisig, W., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) APN 1986. LNCS, vol. 255, pp. 325–392. Springer, Heidelberg (1987)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wodtke, D., Weikum, G.: A formal foundation for distributed workflow execution based on state charts. In: Afrati, F.N., Kolaitis, P.G. (eds.) ICDT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1186, pp. 230–246. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yi, X., Kochut, K.J.: Process composition of web services with complex conversation protocols. In: Design, Analysis, and Simulation of Distributed Systems Symposium at Adavanced Simulation Technology (2004)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zielonka, W.: Notes on finite asynchronous automata. Informatique Théorique et Applications 21(2), 99–135 (1987)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Hildebrandt
    • 1
  • Raghava Rao Mukkamala
    • 1
  • Tijs Slaats
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IT University of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Exformatics A/SCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations