EmotionML – An Upcoming Standard for Representing Emotions and Related States

  • Marc Schröder
  • Paolo Baggia
  • Felix Burkhardt
  • Catherine Pelachaud
  • Christian Peter
  • Enrico Zovato
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6974)


The present paper describes the specification of Emotion Markup Language (EmotionML) 1.0, which is undergoing standardisation at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The language aims to strike a balance between practical applicability and scientific well-foundedness. We briefly review the history of the process leading to the standardisation of EmotionML. We describe the syntax of EmotionML as well as the vocabularies that are made available to describe emotions in terms of categories, dimensions, appraisals and/or action tendencies. The paper concludes with a number of relevant aspects of emotion that are not covered by the current specification.


Action Tendency Emotion Category Markup Language Virtual Agent Incubator Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Schröder
    • 1
  • Paolo Baggia
    • 2
  • Felix Burkhardt
    • 3
  • Catherine Pelachaud
    • 4
  • Christian Peter
    • 5
  • Enrico Zovato
    • 2
  1. 1.DFKI GmbHSaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Loquendo S.p.A.TorinoItaly
  3. 3.Deutsche Telekom AGBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Telecom ParisTechParisFrance
  5. 5.Fraunhofer IGDRostockGermany

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