Towards Modeling Dynamic Behavior with Integrated Qualitative Spatial Relations

  • Stefan Mitsch
  • Werner Retschitzegger
  • Wieland Schwinger
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6999)


Situation awareness and geographic information systems in dynamic spatial systems such as road traffic management (RTM) aim to detect and predict critical situations on the basis of relations between entities. Such relations are described by qualitative calculi, each of them focusing on a certain aspect (e.g., topology). Since these calculi are defined isolated from each other, dependencies between then are not explicitly modeled. We argue, that a taxonomy—containing a plethora of special cases of inter-calculi dependencies—can only be defined in a consistent manner, if evolution of entities and the relations of calculi are grounded in a unified model. In this paper, we define such a unified model, which is used to derive a taxonomy of inter-calculi dependency constraints contained in an ontology utilizing various spatial calculi. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated with a case study in RTM, and concluded with lessons learned from a prototypical implementation.


Geographic Information System Situation Awareness Situation Calculus Conceptual Neighborhood Region Connection Calculus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baumgartner, N., Gottesheim, W., Mitsch, S., Retschitzegger, W., Schwinger, W.: BeAware!—situation awareness, the ontology-driven way. International Journal of Data and Knowledge Engineering 69(11), 1181–1193 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baumgartner, N., Gottesheim, W., Mitsch, S., Retschitzegger, W., Schwinger, W.: Situation Prediction Nets—Playing the Token Game for Ontology-Driven Situation Awareness. In: Parsons, J., Saeki, M., Shoval, P., Woo, C., Wand, Y. (eds.) ER 2010. LNCS, vol. 6412, pp. 202–218. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatt, M., Loke, S.: Modelling Dynamic Spatial Systems in the Situation Calculus. Spatial Cognition and Computation 8, 86–130 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhatt, M., Rahayu, W., Sterling, G.: Qualitative Simulation: Towards a Situation Calculus based Unifying Semantics for Space, Time and Actions. In: Proc. of the Conf. on Spatial Information Theory, Ellicottville, NY, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clementini, E., Felice, P.D., Hernández, D.: Qualitative Representation of Positional Information. Artificial Intelligence 95(2), 317–356 (1997)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohn, A.G., Renz, J.: Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning. In: Handbook of Knowledge Representation, pp. 551–596. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Egenhofer, M.: A Reference System for Topological Relations between Compound Spatial Objects. In: Proc. of the 3rd Intl. Workshop on Semantic and Conceptual Issues in GIS, Gramado, Brazil, pp. 307–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Egenhofer, M.: The Family of Conceptual Neighborhood Graphs for Region-Region Relations. In: Proc. of the 6th Intl. Conf. on Geographic Information Science, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 42–55. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freksa, C.: Conceptual neighborhood and its role in temporal and spatial reasoning. In: Proc. of the Imacs International Workshop on Decision Support Systems and Qualitative Reasoning, pp. 181–187 (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Galton, A.: Towards a Qualitative Theory of Movement. In: Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Spatial Information Theory: A Theoretical Basis for GIS. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galton, A.: Continuous Motion in Discrete Space. In: Proc. of the 7th Intl. Conf. on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Breckenridge, CO, USA, pp. 26–37. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galton, A., Worboys, M.: Processes and Events in Dynamic Geo-Networks. In: Rodríguez, M.A., Cruz, I., Levashkin, S., Egenhofer, M.J. (eds.) GeoS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3799, pp. 45–59. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gerevini, A., Nebel, B.: Qualitative spatio-temporal reasoning with RCC-8 and allen’s interval calculus: Computational complexity. In: Proc. of the 15th Eureopean Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Lyon, France, pp. 312–316. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grenon, P., Smith, B.: SNAP and SPAN: Towards Dynamic Spatial Ontology. Spatial Cognition & Computation: An Interdisciplinary Journal 4(1), 69–104 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hernández, D., Clementini, E., Felice, P.D.: Qualitative Distances. In: Kuhn, W., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 45–57. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hu, Y., Levesque, H.J.: Planning with Loops: Some New Results. In: Proc. of the ICAPS Workshop on Generalized Planning: Macros, Loops, Domain Control, Thessaloniki, Greece (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ibrahim, Z.M., Tawfik, A.Y.: An Abstract Theory and Ontology of Motion Based on the Regions Connection Calculus. In: Proc. of the 7th Intl. Symp. on Abstraction, Reformulation, and Approximation, Whistler, Canada, pp. 230–242. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klippel, A., Worboys, M., Duckham, M.: Conceptual Neighborhood Blindness—On the Cognitive Adequacy of Gradual Topological Changes. In: Proc. of the Workshop on Talking about and Perceiving Moving Objects: Exploring the Bridge between Natural Language, Perception and Formal Ontologies of Space, Bremen, Germany, Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krötzsch, M., Rudolph, S., Hitzler, P.: Description Logic Rules. In: Proc. of the 18th European Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 80–84. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Randell, D.A., Cui, Z., Cohn, A.G.: A Spatial Logic based on Regions and Connection. In: Proc. of the 3rd Intl. Conf. on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1992)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reis, R., Egenhofer, M., Matos, J.: Conceptual Neighborhoods of Topological Relations between Lines. In: Ruas, A., Gold, C. (eds.) Proc. of the 13th Intl. Symp. on Spatial Data Handling (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reiter, R.: Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Specifying and Implementing Dynamical Systems. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Worboys, M., Hornsby, K.: From Objects to Events: GEM, the Geospatial Event Model. In: Egenhofer, M.J., Freksa, C., Miller, H.J. (eds.) GIScience 2004. LNCS, vol. 3234, pp. 327–343. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Mitsch
    • 1
  • Werner Retschitzegger
    • 1
  • Wieland Schwinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Johannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations