Context-Based Behavioral Equivalence of Components in Self-Adaptive Systems

  • Narges Khakpour
  • Marjan Sirjani
  • Ursula Goltz
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6991)


An important challenge to realize dynamic adaptation is finding suitable components for substitution or interaction according to the current context. A possible solution is checking behavioral equivalence of components in different contexts. Two components are equivalent with respect to a context, if they behave equivalently in that context. In this work, we deal with context-specific behavioral equivalence of PobSAM components. PobSAM is a flexible formal model for developing and modeling evolving self-adaptive systems. A PobSAM model is a collection of actors, views, and autonomous managers. Autonomous managers govern the behavior of actors by enforcing suitable context-based policies. Views provide contextual information for managers to control and adapt the actors behavior. Managers are the core components used to realize adaptation by changing their policies. They are modeled as meta-actors whose configurations are described using a multi-sorted algebra called CA. The behavior of mangers depends on the context in which they are executing. In this paper, we present an equational theory to reason about context-specific behavioral equivalence of managers independently from actors. To this end, we introduce and axiomatize a new operator to consider the interaction of managers and the context. This equational theory is based on the notion of statebased bisimilarity and allows us to reason about the behavioral equivalence of managers as well as the behavioral equivalence of the constitutes of managers (i.e., policies and configurations). We illustrate our approach through an example.


Internal Action Equational Theory Axiom System Governing Policy Adaptation Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adler, R., Schaefer, I., SchLule, T., Vecchie, E.: From model-based design to formal verification of adaptive embedded systems. In: Butler, M., Hinchey, M.G., Larrondo-Petrie, M.M. (eds.) ICFEM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4789, pp. 76–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bradbury, J.S., Cordy, J.R., Dingel, J., Wermelinger, M.: A survey of self-management in dynamic software architecture specifications. In: Proceedings of 1st ACM SIGSOFT Workshop on Self-managed Systems, pp. 28–33. ACM, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garlan, D., Cheng, S.-W., Schmerl, B.R.: Increasing system dependability through architecture-based self-repair. In: WADS, pp. 61–89 (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Georgas, J.C., Taylor, R.N.: Policy-based self-adaptive architectures: a feasibility study in the robotics domain. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Workshop on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-managing Systems, SEAMS 2008, pp. 105–112. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Groote, J.F., Ponse, A.: Process algebra with guards: Combining hoare logic with process algebra. Formal Asp. Comput. 6(2), 115–164 (1994)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heam, P.-C., Kouchnarenko, O., Voinot, J.: Component simulation-based substitutivity managing qos aspects. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 260, 109–123 (2010)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khakpour, N.: Context-based behavioral equivalence of components in self-adaptive systems. Technical report, Technical Report of TU Bruanschweig (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Khakpour, N., Jalili, S., Talcott, C.L., Sirjani, M., Mousavi, M.R.: Pobsam: Policy-based managing of actors in self-adaptive systems. Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 263, 129–143 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khakpour, N., Jalili, S., Talcott, C.L., Sirjani, M., Mousavi, M.R.: Formal modeling of evolving adaptive systems (submitted, 2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khakpour, N., Khosravi, R., Sirjani, M., Jalili, S.: Formal analysis of policy-based self-adaptive systems. In: SAC, pp. 2536–2543 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Legond-Aubry, F., Enselme, D., Florin, G.: Assembling contracts for components. In: Najm, E., Nestmann, U., Stevens, P. (eds.) FMOODS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2884, pp. 35–43. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mateescu, R., Poizat, P., Salaun, G.: Adaptation of service protocols using process algebra and on-the-fly reduction techniques. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 99(prePrints) (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schaeffer-Filho, A., Lupu, E., Sloman, M., Eisenbach, S.: Verification of policy-based self-managed cell interactions using alloy. In: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks, POLICY 2009, pp. 37–40. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schneider, K., Schuele, T., Trapp, M.: Verifying the adaptation behavior of embedded systems. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Workshop on Self-adaptation and self-managing Systems, SEAMS 2006, pp. 16–22. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sirjani, M., Movaghar, A., Shali, A., de Boer, F.S.: Modeling and verification of reactive systems using rebeca. Fundam. Inform. 63(4), 385–410 (2004)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sloman, M., Lupu, E.C.: Engineering policy-based ubiquitous systems. Comput. J. 53(7), 1113–1127 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cerna, I., Varekova, P., Zimmerova, B.: Component substitutability via equivalencies of component-interaction automata. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 182, 39–55 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, J., Cheng, B.H.C.: Specifying adaptation semantics. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 30(4), 1–7 (2005)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang, J., Cheng, B.H.C.: Model-based development of dynamically adaptive software. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2006, pp. 371–380. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang, J., Goldsby, H., Cheng, B.H.C.: Modular verification of dynamically adaptive systems. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Aspect-oriented Software Development, pp. 161–172 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narges Khakpour
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marjan Sirjani
    • 3
  • Ursula Goltz
    • 1
  1. 1.IPSTechnical University of BraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Tarbiat Modares UniversityIran
  3. 3.Reykjavik UniversityIceland

Personalised recommendations