Manufacturing of Individualized Cranial Implants Using Two Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

  • A. Göttmann
  • M. Korinth
  • V. Schäfer
  • B. T. Araghi
  • M. Bambach
  • G. Hirt
Conference paper


A new approach for the production of cranial implants using CNC-controlled two point incremental sheet forming (TPIF) is presented. The use of titanium sheets for implant manufacturing offers the possibility for production of relatively thin parts involving a lower amount of scrap compared to machining. For this purpose a forming process is required which is suitable for economical production of individualized parts with an adequate accuracy. TPIF is a process suitable for prototyping and small batch production due to the minor tooling effort and high flexibility compared to traditional sheet forming processes. Furthermore, incremental sheet forming allows the processing of pure titanium sheets suitable for medical applications.

In the present paper, a production chain is introduced which includes TPIF, heat treatment and cutting of the part. The manufacturing steps were developed and optimized with respect to the requirements for cranial implants. The possibility to use different initial semi-finished products solid titanium sheets and expanded metals will be described and discussed.

Experiments will be evaluated to show the applicability of TPIF for cranial implant production. The produced implants will be compared to the CAD-geometry, and their accuracy will be determined. It will be shown, that a maximum deviation of the implants edge compared to the CAD-geometry is less than 2mm. Finally an outlook will show possible approaches for further optimization of the process.


Sheet Metal Tool Path Geometric Accuracy Wall Angle Titanium Sheet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the “Exploratory Research Space @ RWTH Aachen” ERS for supporting this work and the German Research Foundation DFG for the support within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Göttmann
    • M. Korinth
      • 1
    • V. Schäfer
      • 1
    • B. T. Araghi
      • 1
    • M. Bambach
      • 1
    • G. Hirt
      • 2
    1. 1.Institute of Metal Forming IBFRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
    2. 2.Medical Faculty RWTHUniversity Hospital Aachen UKAAachenGermany

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