Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

  • Adhar C. Manna


In recent years, research and the use of nanomaterials has attracted much interest due to their small size (1–100 nm) and novel structures that exhibit significantly improved physical, chemical, and biological properties compared to their bulk or molecular precursors. In this context, a new branch of multidisciplinary science integrating engineering with biology, chemistry and physics has emerged as nanosciences or nanotechnology, due to their existence and potential applications in a wide variety of fields such as electronics, ceramics, catalysis, magnetic data storage, structural components, food, cosmetics, biological and medical [1–3]. Metal oxides, in particular the transition metal oxides, have profound applications in various fields due to their excellent optical, magnetic, electrical and chemical properties. As the size decreases from the micrometer to the nanometer range, the materials exhibit enhanced diffusivity, increased mechanical strength and chemical reactivity, higher specific heat and electrical resistivity, and enhanced biological properties. This is in part because as particles become smaller, the proportion of atom found at the surface increases relative to the proportion inside its volume, which means that composite materials containing nanoparticles can be more reactive and have enhanced chemical properties. Nanostructure metal oxides are more interesting in that they can be synthesized with a very high surface-to-volume ratio and with unusual morphologies that contain numerous edge/corner and other reactive surface sites, which can be easily functionalized with different groups for the desired applications. An increasing use of nanomaterials has been reported in biological- and medical-related applications such as imaging, sensing, target drug delivery, fighting human pathogens, healthcare products, cosmetics, and food preservative agents due to better safety and stability compared to bulk precursors or their organic counterparts.


Antibacterial Activity Zinc Acetate Zinc Oxide Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Solution Phase Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author thank Dr. Vector Huber for the critical reading the manuscript. The author would like to thank Dr. R.T. Koodali and Krishna R. Raghupathi for their help in preparation of this article.


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© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of MedicineUniversity of South DakotaVermillionUSA

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