Properties and Behavior of Selected Inorganic and Organometallic Contaminants

Chapter

Abstract

We discuss the potential sources, properties, and chemistry of several major groups of contaminants found in the soil–subsurface environment. Usually, the release of contaminants to the environment originates from anthropogenic processes. Even when the contaminants are naturally occurring species, human intervention or changes in natural conditions are often involved in the development of pollution. Furthermore, many contaminants are relatively persistent and may, therefore, be found in the soil–subsurface environment long after their actual release.

Keywords

Petroleum Hydrocarbon Nickel Sulfide Brominate Flame Retardant Chromated Copper Arsenate Hazardous Waste Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adriano DC, Bolan NS, Vangronsveld J, Wenzel WW (2005) Heavy metals. In: Hillel D (ed) Encyclopedia of soils in the environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 175–182Google Scholar
  2. Alan WT (2004) Fertilizers, Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison JD, Brown DS, Novo-Gradac KJ (1990) MlNTEQA2/PRODEFA2, A Geochemical Assessment Model for Environmental Systems: Version 3.0. US Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GAGoogle Scholar
  4. Antoniadis V, Tsadilas CD (2007) Sorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in mono- and multimetal systems. Appl Geochem 22:2375–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atanassova I (1999) Competitive effect of copper, zinc, cadmium and nickel on ion adsorption and desorption by soil clays. Water Air Soil Pollut 113:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ATSDR (1999) Toxicological profile for cadmium. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryGoogle Scholar
  7. Avudainayagam S, Megharaj M, Owens G, Kookana RS, Chittleborough D, Naidu R (2003) Chemistry of chromium in soils with emphasis on tannery waste sites. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 178:53–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balbus J, Denison R, Florini K, Walsh S (2005) Getting nanotechnology right the first time. Iss Sci Technol, Summer: 65–71Google Scholar
  9. Barbash JE (2003) Treatise on geochemistry, Vol 9. In: Sherwood Lollar B (ed) Elsevier, 541–577Google Scholar
  10. Birnbaum LS, Sttaskal DF (2004) Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect 112:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradlow HL, Davis DL, Lin G, Sepkovic D, Tiwari R (1995) Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16 alpha/2-hydroxyestrone: a biologic marker of breast cancer risk. Environ Health Perspect 103:147–50Google Scholar
  12. Brigger I, Dubernet C, Couvreur P (2002) Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54:631–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Briggs SA (1992) Basic guide to pesticides: their characteristics and hazards. CRC, FLGoogle Scholar
  14. Brus L (1986) Electronic wave functions in semiconductor clusters: experiment and theory. J Phys Chem 90:2555–2560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burkholder JM, Mallin MA, Glasgow HB (1999) Fish kills, bottom-water hypoxia, and the toxic Pfiesteria complex in the Neuse River and Estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 179:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. C&EN (2002) Call for investigation of Syngenta, Government Concentrates C&EN, 80(23)Google Scholar
  17. Citeau L, Lamy I, van Oort F, Elsass F (2003) Colloidal facilitated transfer of metals in soils under different land use. Colloid Surf A: Physicochem Eng Aspect 217:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Colvin VL (2003) The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials. Nat Biotechnol 21:1166–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper R, Chadwick R, Rehnberg G, Goldman J (1989) Effect of lindane on hormonal control of reproductive function in the female rat. Tox Appl Pharm 99:384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Danzo BJ (1997) Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Environ Health Perspect 105:294–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daughton CG (2004) Non-regulated water contaminants: emerging research. Environ Impact Asses Rev 24:711–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daughton CG, Ternes TA (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change. Environ Health Perspectives 107:907–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis JA (1984) Complexation of trace metals by adsorbed natural organic material. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:679–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis JA, Leckie JO (1978) Effect of adsorbed complexing ligands on trace metal uptake by hydrous oxides. Environ Sci Technol 12:1309–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Denaix L, Semlali RM, Douay F (2001) Dissolved and colloidal transport of Cd, Pb, and Zn in a silt loam soil affected by atmospheric industrial deposition. Environ Pollut 113:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DePierre JW (2003) Mammalian toxicity of organic compounds of bromine and iodine. Handbook Environ Chem 3:205–251Google Scholar
  27. DeShon ND (1979) Carbon Tetrachloride. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed. In: Grayson M, Eckroth D (eds) New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 5:704–714 [as cited by Santodonato J. 1985. Monograph on human exposure to chemicals in the workplace: Carbon tetrachloride; PB86-143377; SRC-TR-84-1123]Google Scholar
  28. Doherty RE (2000a) A history of the production and use of carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the United States: Part 2 – trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. J Environ Forensics 1:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doherty RE (2000b) A history of the production and use of carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the United States: Part 1-historical background; carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene. J Environ Forensics 1:69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dorr H, Munnich KO (1991) Lead and cesium transport in European forest soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 57(58):809–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dowling A (2004) Development of nanotechnologies. Mater Today 7(suppl 1):30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dror I, Baram D, Berkowitz B (2005) Use of nanosized catalysts for transformation of chloro-organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 39:1283–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. ECB (2005) Risk assessment: Cadmium metal/Cadmium oxide, Final, but not adopted version of Dec 2005. European Chemicals Bureau, Ispra, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  34. ECETOC (1988) Nitrate and drinking water. Brussels, European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre (Technical Report No. 27)Google Scholar
  35. EPA (1987) Estimated national occurrence and exposure to nitrate and nitrite in public drinking water supplies. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. EPA (1992) Lead poisoning and your children (800-B-92–0002). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. EPA (1999) Contaminant persistence and mobility factors. The Class V Underground Injection Control Study, Appendices E. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. EPA (2005b) Environmental Protection Agency. Trichloroethylene (TCE) health risk assessment: Overview. Available at http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/xmlreport.display?deid=119268&z_chk=31804
  39. EPA (2006) About pesticides http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/
  40. Erickson BE (2002) Analyzing the ignored environmental contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 36:140A–145ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fendorf SE (1995) Surface reactions of chromium in soils and waters. Geoderma 67:55–71. doi: 10.1016/0016-7061(94)00062-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gachon L (1969) Les methods d’appréciation de la ferlité phosphorique des sols. Assoc Fr Etude Sol 4:17–31Google Scholar
  43. Gambrell RP (1994) Trace and toxic metals in wetlands - a review. J Environ Qual 23:883–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gambrell RP, Khalid RA, Patrick WH Jr (1980) Chemical availability of mercury, lead, and zinc in mobile bay sediment suspensions as affected by pH and oxidation-reduction conditions. Environ Sci Technol 14:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gerhartz W (ed) (1986) Ullman’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry, 5th edn. Weinheim, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Gotoh H, Patrick WH Jr (1974) Transformation of iron in a waterlogged soil as influenced by redox potential and pH. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gustafson JB, Tell JG, Orem D (1997) Selection of representative TPH fractions based on fate and transport considerations total petroleum hydrocarbon criteria, Working Group Series, vol 3. Amherst Scientific Publishers, Amherst, MAGoogle Scholar
  48. Han FX, Su Y, Monts DL, Plodinec MJ, Banin A, Triplett GE (2003) Assessment of global industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic contamination. Naturwissenschaften 90:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayes RB (1997) The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 8:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicology Letters 131:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heberer T, Reddersen K, Mechlinski A (2002) From municipal sewage to drinking water: fate and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment in urban areas. Water Sci Technol 46:81–88Google Scholar
  52. Hickman JC (2000) Tetrachloroethylene Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/kirk/article/tetrhick.a01/current/pdf
  53. Holbrook MT (2000) Carbon tetrachloride Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley. http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/kirk/article/carbholb.a01/current/pdf
  54. Hook JE (1983) Movement of phosphates and nitrogen in soils following application of municipal wastewater. In: Nielson DW, Elrik DE, Tanji KK (eds) Chemical mobility and reactivity in soil system. Soil Sci Soc Am Spec Pub 11:241–255Google Scholar
  55. Howard CV (2004) Small particles – big problems. Int Lab News 34(2):28–9Google Scholar
  56. HSDB (1995) Hazardous substances data bank. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (CD-ROM version). Denver, CO: Micromedex, Inc.Google Scholar
  57. HSDB (2000) Hazardous substances data bank. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. Available online through Toxicology Data Network at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov
  58. Hu SP, Chen XC, Shi JY, Chen YX, Lin Q (2008) Particle-facilitated lead and arsenic transport in abandoned mine sites soil influenced by simulated acid rain. Chemosphere 71:2091–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. ICAIR Life Systems, Inc. (1987) Drinking water criteria document on nitrate/nitrite. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  60. Jacks G, Sharma VP (1983) Nitrogen circulation and nitrate in ground water in an agricultural catchment in southern India. Environ Geol 5(2):61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jarup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Klaine SJ, Alvarez PJ, Batley GE, Fernandes TF, Handy RD, Lyon DY, Mahendra S, McLaughlin MJ, Lead JR (2008) Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1825–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuhnt G (1993) Behavior and fate of surfactants in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1813–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumaresan M, Riyazuddin P (2001) Overview of speciation chemistry of arsenic. Curr Sci 80:837–846Google Scholar
  65. Law JP, Bloodworth ME, Runklers JR (1966) Reactions of surfactants with montmorillonitic soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 30:327–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Laxen DPH (1985) Trace metal adsorption/coprecipitation on hydrous ferric oxide under realistic conditions. Water Res 19:1229–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Letterman RD (ed) (1999) Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies, 5th Ed. Am Water Works Assoc. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Linak E, Lutz HJ, Nakamura E (1990) C2 chlorinated solvents. In: Linak E, Lutz HJ, Nakamura E (eds) C2 chlorinated solvents, chemical economics handbook. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, pp 632.30000a–632.3001ZGoogle Scholar
  69. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical equilibria in soils. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Marshall KA (2003) Chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons, Survey Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. 6:226–253 http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/search/firstpage
  71. Maskall JE, Thornton I (1998) Chemical partitioning of heavy metals in soils, clays and rocks at historical lead smelting sites. Water Air Soil Pollut 108:391–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matthews GA (2006) Pesticides: health, safety and the environment. Blackwell, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  73. Mckenzie LC, Hutchison JE (2004) Green nanoscience. Chimica Oggi-Chemistry Today 22:30–33Google Scholar
  74. McLean JE, Bledsoe BE (1992) Behavior of metals in soils. Ground Water Issue US EPA EPA/540/S-92/018 (as cited by U.S. EPA, 1999)Google Scholar
  75. McMurray CT, Tainer J (2003) Cancer, cadmium and genome integrity. Nat Genet 34:239–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mengel K (1985) Dynamics and availability of major nutrients in soils. Adv Soil Sci 2:67–134Google Scholar
  77. Mercer JW, Cohen RM (1990) A review of immiscible fluids in the subsurface: properties, models, characterization, and remediation. J Contam Hydrol 6:107–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mertens JA (2000) Trichloroethylene Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/kirk/article/tricmert.a01/current/pdf John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  79. Milne WGA (1995) Handbook of pesticides. CRC, FLGoogle Scholar
  80. Mohanty AK, Drzal LT, Misra M (2003) Nano reinforcements of bio-based polymers – the hope and the reality. Polymer Mater Sci Eng 88:60–61Google Scholar
  81. Montgomery JH (1993) Agrochemicals desk reference: environmental data. Lewis, Chelsea, MIGoogle Scholar
  82. Moore MN (2002) Biocomplexity: the post-genome challenge in ecotoxicology. Aquat Toxicol 59:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moore MN (2006) Do nanoparticles present toxicological risks for the health of aquatic environment? Environ Int 32:967–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Murphy EM, Zachara JM (1995) The role of sorbed humic substances on the distribution of organic and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Geoderma 67:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nadim F, Hoag GE, Liu SL, Carley RJ, Zack P (2000) Detection and remediation of soil and aquifer systems contaminated with petroleum products: an overview. J Petrol Sci Eng 26:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nariagu JO (1996) History of global metal pollution. Science 272:223–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nel A, Xia T, Madler L, Li N (2006) Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 311:622–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Newman A (1995) Atrazine found to cause chromosomal breaks. Environ Sci Technol 29:450ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Newman ME, Elzerman AW, Looney BB (1993) Facilitated transport of selected metals in aquifer material packed columns. J Contam Hydrol 14:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nurmi JT, Tratnyek PG, Sarathy V, Baer DR, Amonette JE, Pecher K, Wang CM, Linehan JC, Matson DW, Penn RL, Driessen MD (2005) Characterization and properties of metallic iron nanoparticles: spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and kinetics. Environ Sci Technol 39:1221–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ordish G (2007) History of agriculture beginnings of pest control. Encyclopedia Britannica http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-10711/history-of-agriculture
  92. Owen R, Depledge M (2005) Nanotechnology and the environment: risks and rewards. Marine Pollut Bull 50:609–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Palmer CD, Wittbrodt PR (1990) Geochemical characterization of the United Chrome Products Site, Final Report. In: Stage 2 deep aquifer drilling technical report, United Chrome Products Site, Corvallis, OR, September 28, 1990. CH2M Hill, Corvallis, ORGoogle Scholar
  94. Pierzynski GM, Sims JT, Vance GF (2000) Soils and environmental quality, 2nd edn. Lewis Publ, ChelseaGoogle Scholar
  95. Pratt PF, Jury WA (1984) Pollution of unsaturated zone with nitrate. In: Yaron B, Dagan G, Goldshmid J (eds) Pollutants in porous media. Springer, Berlin, pp 52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Reeder AL, Foley GL, Nichols DK, Hansen LG, Wikoff B, Faeh S, Eisold J, Wheeler MB, Warner R, Murphy JE, Beasley VR (1998) Environ Health Perspect 106:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Renner R (2002) Is sludge safe? Environ Sci Technol 36:46AGoogle Scholar
  98. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering (2004) Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties. RS policy document 19/04. The Royal Society, London, p 113Google Scholar
  99. Sharpley A, Tunney H (2000) Phosphorus research strategies to meet agricultural and environmental challenges of the 21st century. J Environ Qual 29:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaw G (2005) Applying radioecology in a world of multiple contaminant. J Environ Radioactivity 81:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sims JT, Simard RR, Joern BC (1998) Phosphorus loss in agricultural drainage – historical perspective and current research. J Environ Qual 27:277–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sposito G (1984) The surface chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  103. Stannard JN (1973) Toxicology of radionuclides. Ann Rev Pharmacol 13:325–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tavera-Mendoza L, Ruby S, Brousseau P, Fournier M, Cyr D, Marcogliese D (2002a) Response of the amphibian tadpole (Xenopus laevis) to atrazine during sexual differentiation of the testis. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:527–531Google Scholar
  105. Tavera-Mendoza L, Ruby S, Brousseau P, Fournier M, Cyr D, Marcogliese D (2002b) Response of the amphibian tadpole Xenopus laevis to atrazine during sexual differentiation of the ovary. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1264–1267Google Scholar
  106. Toor GS, Condron LM, Di HJ, Cameron KC, Cade-Menun BJ (2003) Characterization of organic phosphorus in leachate from a grassland soil. Soil Bio Biochem 35:1317–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tsang DCW, Lo IMC (2006) Competitive Cu and Cd and transport in soils: a combined batch kinetics, column, and sequential extraction study. Sci Total Environ 40:6655–6661Google Scholar
  108. Turner DR, Whitfield M, Dickson AG (1981) The equilibrium speciation of dissolved components in freshwater and seawater at 25°C and 1 atm pressure. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:855–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. UNSCEAR (2000a) Annex B exposures from natural radiation sources, http://www.unscear.org/pdffiles/annexb.pdf
  110. UNSCEAR (2000b) Annex C exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation, http://www.unscear.org/pdffiles/annexc.pdf
  111. van Duijvenboden W, Loch JPG (1983) Nitrate in the Netherlands: a serious threat to groundwater. Aqua 2:59–60Google Scholar
  112. van Duijvenboden W, Matthijsen AJCM (1989) Integrated criteria document nitrate. Bilthoven, Rijksintituut voor de Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiëne (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection) (RIVM Report No. 758473012)Google Scholar
  113. Vorhees DJ, Weisman WH, Gustafson JB (1999) Human health risk-based evaluation of petroleum release sites: implementing the working group approach. In: Total petroleum hydrocarbon criteria working group. Amherst Scientific Publishers, Amherst, MAGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang Y, Herron N (1991) Nanometer-sized semiconductor clusters: material synthesis, quantum size effects, and photophysical properties. J Phys Chem 95:525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Warheit DB (2004) Nanoparticles: health impacts? Mater Today 7:32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. WHO (1985) Health hazards from nitrates in drinking water. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  117. WHO (2001) Arsenic and arsenic compounds. Environmental Health Criteria 224 The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc224.htm
  118. WHO (2005) The World Health Organization Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_rev_3.pdf
  119. Wood A (2006) Compendium of Pesticide Common Names – Classified Lists of Pesticides http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/class_pesticides.html
  120. Yin X, Gao B, Ma LQ, Saha UK, Sun H, Wang G (2010) Colloid-facilitated Pb transport in two shooting range soils in Florida. J Haz Mat 177:620–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Young CP, Morgan-Jones M (1980) A hydrogeochemical survey of the chalk groundwater of the Banstead area, Surrey, with particular reference to nitrate. J Inst Water Eng Sci 34:213–236Google Scholar
  122. Zhu YG, Shaw G (2000) Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation. Chemosphere 41:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy ResearchWeizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations