Soil–Subsurface Interrelated Matrix

  • Bruno Yaron
  • Ishai Dror
  • Brian Berkowitz


The soil–subsurface regime comprises two distinct, interacting phases which may be affected by anthropogenic chemicals: the solid phase, formed by mineral and organic constituents in various states of evolution, and the liquid phase, including the water retained in the soil–subsurface pores and in the aquifer. The impact of anthropogenic chemicals on the soil–subsurface system may lead to irreversible changes in the solid phase matrix and properties, as well as to alteration of the liquid phase chemical composition. In this chapter, we provide a basic overview of soil–subsurface system characteristics as formed under natural environmental conditions; the reader is referred to the literature for detailed information.


Soil Organic Matter Humic Substance Humic Acid Clay Mineral Fulvic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allen BL, Fanning DS (1983) Composition and soil genesis. In: Wilding EP (ed) Pedogenesis and soil taxonomy: I concepts and interactions. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey SW, Brindley GW, Johns WD, Martin RT, Ross M (1971) Clay mineral society report on nomenclature committee 1969–1970. Clay Clay Miner 19:132–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnhisel RL, Bertsch PM (1989) Chloride and hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and smectite. In: Dixon JB, Weeds SB (eds) Minerals in soils. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 730–789Google Scholar
  4. Barrer RM, Jones DL (1970) Chemistry of soil minerals 8. Synthesis and properties of fluorhectorites. J Chem Soc A: 1531–1537Google Scholar
  5. Barshad I (1960) Thermodynamics of water adsorption and desorption on montmorillonite. Clays Clay Miner 8:84–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borchard G (1989) In: Dixon JB, Weeds SB (eds) Minerals in soils. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 675–728Google Scholar
  7. Brady PV, Cygan RT, Nagy KL (1996) Molecular controls of kaolinite surface charge. J Colloid Interf Sci 183:356–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brindley GW, MacEvan DMC (1953) Structural aspects of the mineralogy of clays and related silicates. In: Green AT, Stewart GH (eds) A Symposium. The British Ceramic Society, Stoke on Trent, UK, pp 15–59Google Scholar
  9. Burdon J (2001) Are the traditional concepts of the structure of humic substances realistic? Soil Sci 199:752–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chester R, Green RN (1968) The infrared determination of quartz in sediments and sedimentary rocks. Chem Geol 3:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chilingar GV (1963) Relationship between porosity, permeability and grain size distribution of sands and sandstones. Proc inter Sedimentol Congr, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. Clapp CE, Hayes MHB, Simpson AJ, Kingery WL (2005) Chemistry of soil organic matter. In: Tabatabai MA, Sparks DL (eds) Chemical processes in soils. SSSA Book Series, Madison WI, pp 1–150Google Scholar
  13. Dennen WH (1966) Stoichiometric substitution in natural quartz. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 30:1235–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dixon JB (1989) Kaoline and serpentine group minerals. In: Dixon JB, Weeds SB (eds) Minerals in soils. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 468–527Google Scholar
  15. Drees LR, Wilding LP, Smeck NE, Senkayi AL (1989) Silica in soils, quartz and disordered silica polymorphs. In: Dixon JB, Weeds SB (eds) Minerals in soil environments. 2nded, SSSA Book Series 1, Madison, WI, pp 913–974Google Scholar
  16. Dyer CL, Kopittke PM, Sheldon AR, Memzies NW (2008) Influence of soil moisture content on soil solution composition. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Essington ME (2004) Soil and water chemistry: an integrative approach. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  18. Farmer VC (1978) Water on partial surfaces. In: Greenland DJ, Hayes NHB (eds) The chemistry of soil constituents. Wiley, NY, pp 405–449Google Scholar
  19. Farmer VC, Russel HD (1967) Infrared absorption spectrometry in clay studies. Clay Clay Miner 15:121–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  21. Frondel C (1962) Dana’s system of mineralogy. III Silica minerals. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Giese RF Jr (1982) Theoretical studies of the kaolin minerals: electrostatic calculation. Bull Mineral 105:417–424Google Scholar
  23. Gilkes RY (1990) Mineralogical insights into soil productivity: An anatomical perspective. In: Proc 14th Congress of Soil Sci, Kyoto, Japan Trans Plenary Papers. pp 63:73Google Scholar
  24. Grim RE (1962) Clay mineralogy. Science 135:890–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gruner JW (1932) Crystal structure of kaolinite. Z Kristallogr 83:75–88Google Scholar
  26. Guggenberger G, Keiser K (2003) Dissolved organic matter in soil: challenging the paradigm of sorptive preservation. Geoderma 113:293–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hatcher PG, Spiker EC (1988) Selective degradation of plant biomolecules. In: Frimel FH, Christman RF (eds) Humic substances and their role in the environment. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 59–74Google Scholar
  28. Hayes MHB, Malcom RL (2001) Consideration of composition and aspects of the structure of humic substances. In: Clapp CE, Hayes MHB, Senesi N, Bloom PR, Jardine PM (eds) Humic substances and chemical contaminants. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 1–39Google Scholar
  29. Hayes MHB, Swift RR (1978) The chemistry of soil organic colloids. In: Greenland DJ, Hayes MHB (eds) The chemistry of soil constituents. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 170–320Google Scholar
  30. Herbillon AJ, Frankart R, Vielvoye L (1981) An occurrence of interstratified kaolinite-smectite minerals in a red-black soil toposequence. Clay Miner 16:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Horne RE (1969) Marine chemistry. Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar
  32. Hurlbut CS, Klein C (1977) Manual of mineralogy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson ML (1964) Chemical composition of soils. In: Bear FE (ed) Chemistry of the soil, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp 71–141Google Scholar
  34. Jansen S, Malaty AM, Nabara S, Johnson E, Ghabbour E, Davies G, Vanum JM (1996) Structural modeling in humic acids. Mater Sci Eng C4:175–179Google Scholar
  35. Jastrow JD (1996) Soil aggregate formation and accrual of particulate and mineral associated organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 28:665–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Katz MYA, Katz MM, Rasskazov AA (1970) Mineral studies in the gravitation gradient field 2. Changes of quartz and density due to natural and experimental “maturation”. Sedimentology 15:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaviratna PD, Pinnavaia TJ, Schroeder PA (1996) Dielectric properties of smectite clays. J Phys Chem Solids 57:1897–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kleber M, Sollins P, Sutton RA (2007) A conceptual model of organo mineral interactions in soils: self assembly of organic molecular fragments in multilayered structure on mineral surfaces. Biogeochemistry 85:9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kong AYY, Six J, Bryant DC, Denison RF, Kessel C (2005) The relationship between carbon input, aggregation and soil organic carbon stabilization in sustainable cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1078–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kononova MM (1966) Soil organic matter: its nature, its role in soil formation and fertility, 2nd edn. Pergamon, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  41. Koorevar P, Menelik G, Dirksen C (1983) Elements of soil physics, developments in soil science #13. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. Leenheer JA, Nanny MA, McIntyre C (2003) Terpenoids as major precursors of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates, surface water, and groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 37:2323–2331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lehman KJ, Solomon D (2007) Organic matter stabilization in soil microaggregates: implications from spatial heterogeneity of organic carbon contents and carbon forms. Biogeochemistry 85:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lim CH, Jackson ML, Koons RD, Helmke PA (1980) Kaolons: sources of differences in cation-exchange capacities and cesium retention. Clays Clay Miner 28:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Low PF (1981) The swelling of clay: III dissociation of exchangeable cations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:1074–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Margolis SV, Krinsley DH (1974) Processes of formation and environmental occurrence of microfeatures on detrital quartz grains. Am J Sci 274:449–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Melo VF, Singh B, Schaefer CEGR, Novais RF, Fontes MPF (2001) Chemical and mineralogical properties of kaolinite-rich Brazilian Soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1324–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morgan DJ, Highley DE, Bland DJ (1979) A montmorillonite, kaolinite association in the Lower Cretaceous of south-west England. In: Mortaland M, Farmer VC (eds) Proc Int Clay Conf. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 301–310Google Scholar
  49. Piccolo A (2001) The supramolecular structure of humic substances. Soil Sci 166:810–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sauvé S, Hendershot W, Allen HE (2000) Solid-solution partitioning of metals in contaminated soils: dependence on pH, total metal burden, and organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 34:1125–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schofield RK, Samson HR (1953) The deflocculation of kaolinite suspension and the accompanying change-over from positive to negative chloride adsorption. Clay Miner Bull 2:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schofield RK, Samson HR (1954) Flocculation of kaolinite due to the attraction of oppositely charged crystal faces. Discuss Faraday Soc 18:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schulten HR (2001) models of humic structure :association of humic acids and organic matter in soils and water. In: Clapp CE, Hayes MHB, Senesi N, Bloom PR, Jardine PM (eds) Humic substances and chemical contaminants. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 73–88Google Scholar
  54. Schulten HR, Schnitzer M (1993) A state of the art: structural concept for humic substances. Naturwissenschaften 80:29–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schulten HR, Schnitzer M (1997) Chemical model structures for soil organic matter and solid. Soil Sci 162:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schulze DG (1989) An introduction to soil mineralogy. In: Dixon JB, Weed SB (eds) Minerals in soil environments. SSSA Book Series 1, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  57. Six J, Connant RT, Paul EA, Paustian K (2002) Stabilization mechanism of soil organic matter: implication for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil 241:155–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Slayter RO (1967) Plant-water relationships. Academic, London, p 366Google Scholar
  59. Sposito G (1973) Volume changes in swelling soils. Soil Sci 115:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sposito G (1984) The surface chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Sposito G (1989) The chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Sposito G, Prost R (1982) Structure of water on smectites. Chem Rev 82:553–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stevenson FJ (1994) Humus chemistry, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Stillinger FH (1980) Water revisited. Science 209:451–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stober W (1967) Formation of silicic acid in aqueous suspension of different silica modification. In: Goulded RF (ed) Equilibrium concepts in natural water systems. Adv Chem Ser 67:161–172Google Scholar
  66. Sutton R, Sposito G (2005) Molecular structure in soil humic substances: the new view. Environ Sci Technol 39:9009–9011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tisdall JM, Oades JM (1982) Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soil. J Soil Sci 33:141–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walworth JL (1992) Soil drying and rewetting or freezing and thawing affects soil solution composition. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Weinhold F (1998) Quantum cluster equilibrium theory of liquids: illustrative application to water. J Chem Phys 109:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wernet P, Nordlund D, Bergman U, Cavalleri M, Odelius M, Ogasawara H, Naslund LA, Hirsh TK, Ojamae L, Glazel P, Petterson LGM, Nilsson A (2004) The structure of the first coordination shell in liquid water. Science 304:995–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wershaw RL (1986) A new model for humic materials and the interaction with hydrophobic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water. J Contam Hydrol 1:29–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wershaw RL (1993) Model for humus in soils and sediments. Environ Sci Tech 27:814–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wershaw RL (2000) The study of humic substances – In search of a paradigm. In: Ghabbour EA, Devies G (eds) Humic substances, versatile components of plants, soil and water. Royal Soc Chem Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  74. Wershaw RL, Llaguno EC, Leenheer JA (1996) Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state (13) CNMR. Coll Surf A-Physicochem Eng Aspects 108:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilding LP, Smeck NE, Drees LR (1989) Silica in soils. In: Dixon JB, Weeds SB (eds) Minerals in soils. SSSA, Madison WI, pp 471–553Google Scholar
  76. Wolt JD (1994) Soil solution chemistry; application to environmental science and agriculture. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Yariv S, Cross H (1979) Geochemistry of colloid systems. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yaron-Marcovich D, Chen Y, Nir S, Prost R (2005) High resolution electron microscopy structural studied of organo-clay nanocomposites. Environ Sci Technol 39:1231–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yerima BPK, Calhoun FG, Senkayi AL, Dixon JB (1985) Occurrence of interstratified kaolinite-smectite in El Salvador vertisols. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:462–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy ResearchWeizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations