Security of Practical Cryptosystems Using Merkle-Damgård Hash Function in the Ideal Cipher Model

  • Yusuke Naito
  • Kazuki Yoneyama
  • Lei Wang
  • Kazuo Ohta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6980)

Abstract

In this paper, we clarify the security of practical cryptosystems with hash functions based on key derivation functions (KDFs). We use the indifferentiability framework in order to discuss the security because the indifferentiability from Random Oracle (and its variants) guarantees that cryptosystems remain secure even if Random Oracles (ROs) are instantiated with hash functions. Though previous works on the indifferentiability of Merkle-Damgård (MD) hash functions focus on stand-alone hash functions, there is no work which focuses on MD hash functions with KDFs. Many cryptosystems need longer output lengths of hash functions than stand-alone hash functions and KDFs are used to generate longer digests as specified in PKCS #1 v2.1 and IEEE P1363. Specifically, we obtain the following results. We denote the MD hash function using Stam’s type-II compression function by MD-SCFII and MD-SCFII with KDFs by KDF-MD-SCFII.

  • Cryptosystems secure in the pub-RO model (FDH, PSS, Fiat-Shamir, and so on): Dodis et al. proposed the indifferentiability from pub-RO to prove the security of these cryptosystems using MD-SCFII while did not consider the KDF structures. So we propose a different framework, indifferentiability from privleak-RO. Using this framework and their result, we show that these cryptosystems using KDF-MD-SCFIIs are secure.

  • Encryption schemes secure in the RO model (OAEP, RSA-KEM, PSEC-KEM, ECIES-KEM and so on): The encryption schemes are secure in the “fixed inputl length” RO model because the input lengths of ROs from the encryption schemes are fixed. We show that this fact guarantees the security of the encryption schemes using KDF-MD-SCFII.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yusuke Naito
    • 1
  • Kazuki Yoneyama
    • 2
  • Lei Wang
    • 3
  • Kazuo Ohta
    • 3
  1. 1.Mitsubishi Electoric CorporationJapan
  2. 2.NTT Information Sharing Platform LaboratoriesJapan
  3. 3.The University of Electro-CommunicationsJapan

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