Transport of pathogens in water saturated sand columns

  • V.I. Syngouna
  • C.V. Chrysikopoulos
Part of the Environmental Earth Sciences book series (EESCI)


Groundwater protection from microbial contamination necessitates a solid understanding of the factors controlling the migration and retention of pathogenic organisms (biocolloids) in the subsurface. Although coliform bacteria and coliphages are used worldwide to indicate fecal pollution of groundwater, their transport behavior is not fully understood. This study focuses on the transport behavior of three waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, MS2, and ΦX174) in laboratory-scale columns packed with clean quartz sand. Three different grain sizes and three pore water velocities were examined. The attachment behavior of Escherichia coli, MS2, and ΦX174 onto quartz sand was evaluated. The mass recoveries of the biocolloids examined were shown to be proportional to the sand size, and they were shown to be highest for Escherichia coli and lowest for MS2. The single collector removal and collision efficiencies were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory.


Quartz Sand Breakthrough Data Mass Recovery Collision Efficiency Pore Water Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams M.H. (1959). Bacteriophages, Interscience, New York, N.Y., pp 450-454Google Scholar
  2. Anders R., Chrysikopoulos C.V. (2005). Virus fate and transport during artificial recharge with recycled water. Water Resour. Res. 41, W10415. doi: 10.1029/2004WR003419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anders R., Chrysikopoulos C.V. (2006). Evaluation of the factors controlling the time-dependent inactivation rate coefficients of bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 3237-3242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anders R., Chrysikopoulos C.V. (2009). Transport of viruses through saturated and unsaturated columns packed with sand. Transp. Porous Media. 76, 121-138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Black C.A. (Eds.) (1965). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. American Society of Agronomy, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolster C.H., Mills A.L., Hornberger G.M., Herman J.S. (2001). Effect of surface coatings, grain size, and ionic strength on the maximum attainable coverage of bacteria on sand surfaces. J. Contam. Hydrol. 50, 287-305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chrysikopoulos C.V. (1993). Artificial tracers for geothermal reservoir studies, Environ. Geol. 22, 60-70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chrysikopoulos C.V., Sim Y. (1996). One-dimensional virus transport homogeneous porous media with time dependent distribution coefficient. J. Hydrol. 185, 199-219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ChuY., Jin Y., Baumann T., Yates M.V. (2003). Effect of soil properties on saturated and unsaturated virus transport through columns. J. Environ. Quality. 32, 2017–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foppen J.W., van Herwerden M., Schijven J. (2007). Transport of Escherichia coli in saturated porous media: Dual mode deposition and intra-population heterogeneity. Water Res. 41, 1743–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Masciopinto C., La Mantia R., Chrysikopoulos C.V. (2008). Fate and transport of pathogens in a fractured aquifer in the Salento area, Italy. Water Resour. Res. 44, W01404. doi:10.1029/2006WR005643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tufenkji N., Elimelech M. (2004). Correlation equation for predicting single-collector efficiency in physicochemical filtration in saturated porous media. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 529-536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • V.I. Syngouna
    • 1
  • C.V. Chrysikopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering LaboratoryUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations