Hydrogeological conditions of the Kotyli springs (N. Greece) based on geological and hydrogeochemical data

  • C. Angelopoulos
  • E. Moutsiakis
Part of the Environmental Earth Sciences book series (EESCI)


The Kotyli springs are located in northern Greece on the NW part of Rhodope Mountains, which is the oldest mountain range of the country. The climate is semi-humid with water excess and deficiency during winter and summer, respectively. The area belongs to the Rhodope isopic zone, specifically in Sidironero unit, consisting of a Paleozoic sequence of neritic-sea metamorphosed sediments and plutonic intrusions successed by tertiary plutonic, volcanic and coastal deposits. The fractured granodiorites in valley depression areas gives rise to most of the springs, the discharge values and the overall hydrogeological data being consistent with this scenario. Hydrogeochemical analyses performed on samples showed that the springs are classified to the Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 type, except for two of the springs in Pacni area classified to the Na-K-Ca-Cl-HCO3 type and the Aimonio spring which is classified to the Ca-Cl-HCO3 type. The low values of the dissolved minerals, expressed in TDS and electric conductivity values indicate a function mechanism, which involves the existence of a shallow aquifer in fractured rock with restricted size and the development of the springs at their current site due to the presence of depressions in the small valleys of the area. However, the function mechanism of the Aimonio spring involves the existence of a shallow aquifer in slightly carstified marbles and the development of the spring at its current site due to the presence of a depression in the small valley of the area.


Shallow Aquifer Hydrogeological Condition Small Valley Coastal Deposit Flow Rate Discharge 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Angelopoulos
    • 1
  • E. Moutsiakis
    • 1
  1. 1.EnviconThessalonikiGreece

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