Evaluation of the geochemical conditions in the deep aquifer system in Vounargo area (SW Greece) based on hydrochemical data

  • E. Karapanos
  • K. Katsanou
  • A. Karli
  • N. Lambrakis
Part of the Environmental Earth Sciences book series (EESCI)


This article investigates the origin and chemical composition of the aquifer hosted in the coastal part near Pyrgos town as well as any possible connection with the tectonic structures of the area. The bedrock in the study area consists of Paleocene limestones of the Ionian zone and evaporites. The post-alpidic sediments consist mainly of clay, marl, siltstone and sandstone. Three major fault trends develop a complex fault system in the wider Pyrgos area. The tectonics and seismicity of the study area are active to date and have played a prominent role in the structure of post-alpidic sediments, the shaping of today’s relief, the development of the drainage network and the local hydrogeological characteristics. Groundwater samples can be classified into two groups based on their water type. The first group corresponds to fresh groundwater of Ca-Mg-HCO3-(SO4) type and the second to alkaline waters of Na-(Ca, Mg)-HCO3-SO4 type. A number of samples classified into the second group are considered to be modified by rock-water interaction processes. Trace elements exhibit generally low concentrations, while boron concentrations suggest discrimination between the above two water groups. The correlations between different elements and their distribution maps suggest that the main fault of Vounargo provides a preferential path for deep circulation, transmission and mixing of deep and shallow groundwater.


Groundwater Sample Slip Rate Total Hardness Boron Concentration Fresh Groundwater 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews N, Fontes JC, Aranyossy JF, Dodo A, Edmunds WM, Joseph A, Travi Y (1994) The evolution of alkaline groundwaters in the continental intercalaire aquifer of the Irhazer Plain, Niger. Water Resources Research 30 (1), 45-61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apambire WB, Boyle DR, Michel FA (1997) Geochemistry, genesis and health implications of fluoriferous groundwater in the upper regions of Ghana. Environmental Geology, 33: 13-24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyle DR (1976) The geochemistry of fluorine and its application in mineral exploration. PhD Thesis. University of London, Imperial College Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyle DR (1992) Effects of base exchange softening on fluoride uptake in groundwaters of the Moncton Sub-basin, New Brunkswick, Canada. In: Kharaka, Y.K., Matest A.S. (eds.) Waterrock interaction, pp. 771-774. Proc. 7th Int. Symp Water-rock interaction. A.A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. Edmunds WM and Smedley PL (1996) Groundwater geochemistry and health: An overview in: Appleton, J.D., Fuge, R and MaCall, G. JH (Eds.) Environmental geochemistry and Health, BGS, Special Publ., 113Google Scholar
  6. Edmunds WM and Smedley PL (2000) Residence time indicators in groundwater: the East Midlands Triassic sandstone aquifer. Appl. Geochem. 15, 737-752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edmunds WM, Carrillo-Rivera JJ, Cardona, A (2002) Geochemical evolution of groundwater beneath Mexico City. Journ. Hydrol. 258, 1-24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis AJ, Mahon WAJ (1967) Natural hydrothermal systems and experimental hot water/rock interactions (Part II). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 519-531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Etiope G, Papatheodorou G, Christodoulou D, Ferentinos G, Sokos E, Favali P (2006) Methane and hydrogen sulfide seepage in the northwest Peloponnesus petroliferous basin (Greece): Origin and geohazard. AAPG Bulletin, v. 90, no. 5: pp. 701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fournier RO, Truesdell AH (1973) An empirical Na-K-Ca geothermometer for natural waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 1255-1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hageman J (1976) Stratigraphy and sedimentary history of the Upper Cenozoic of the Pyrgos area (Western Peloponnesus), Greece. Ann.Geol. Pays. Helleniques, 28, 299-333Google Scholar
  12. Handa BK (1975) Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride-contamination ground waters in India. Ground Water 13 (3), p: 275-281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kamberis Ε (1987) Geological and oil study of NW Peloponnese. PhD thesis. Polytechnic School. Section of Geological Sciences. Athens (in Greek)Google Scholar
  14. Karapanos E (2009) Hydrogeological – hydrochemical parameters of the drained Mouria Lake (Prefecture of Ilia), controlling the rehabilitation and the sustainable management of the wetlands. PhD thesis. Department of Geology, University of Patras. 310 pp. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  15. Katsanou K (2007) Environmental and hydrogeological study of the hydrological basins in the broader area of Aigion region by the use of hydrochemical methods. Master Dissertation. University of Patras. 171 pp (in Greek)Google Scholar
  16. Koukouvelas I, Mpresiakas A, Sokos E & Doutsos T (1996) The tectonic setting and earthquake ground hazards of the 1993 Pyrgos earthquake, Peloponnese, Greece. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 153, pp 39-49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kundu N, Panigrahi MK, Tripathy S, Munshi S, Powell MA, Hart BR, (2001) Geochemical appraisal of fluoride contamination of groundwater in Nayagargh District, Orissa, India using geochemical and resistivity studies. Environmental Geology 41 (3-4): 451-460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Palmer MR (1991) Boron-isotope evidence of Helmahera arc (Indonesia) lavas: Evidence for involvement of the subducted stab. Geology 19, 215-217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pennisi M, Leeman PW, Tonarini S, Nabelek P (2000) Boron, Sr, O, and H isotope geochemistry of groundwaters from Mt. Etna (Sicily) – hydrologic implications. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (6), 961-974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Streif H (1980) Geological map of Greece, Pyrgos sheet, 1:50000. Institute of Geological and Mining Research. Athens (in Greek)Google Scholar
  21. Thornthwaite CW, Mather JR (1955) The water balance. Climatology 8, 1-37Google Scholar
  22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1976) Quality criteria for water. Washington, DC, 501pGoogle Scholar
  23. Voroshelov YI (1966) Geochemical behaviour of fluorine in the groundwaters of the Moscow region. Geochem. Int. 2: 261Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Karapanos
    • 1
  • K. Katsanou
    • 1
  • A. Karli
    • 1
  • N. Lambrakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of PatrasRio-PatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations