Introduction and Preliminaries

  • N. Chandra
  • R. Ghosh
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 67)


The year 2005, under the auspices of the United Nations Organization (UNO), was celebrated as the International (or World) Year of Physics. It was as much in the memory of that Annus Mirabilis (Miracle Year) of 1905 in which Albert Einstein published his five famous papers [1–5] more than a century ago, as to honor their author himself by the whole world together. We now know the profound effects those five papers [1–5] have had not only on the development of science, in general, and physics, in particular; but also on the evolution, through these developments, of the human civilization we are enjoying today. One [1] of the five papers which Einstein wrote in the Annus Mirabilis, provided an explanation of the experimentally observed photoelectric effect [6, 7].


Nonradiative Decay Bipartite State Spin Angular Momentum Nonlocal Correlation Left Circularly Polarize 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and MeteorologyIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.c/o B.N. PandaPokhariputIndia

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