GPU-Based Ray Casting of Stacked Out-of-Core Height Fields

  • Christopher Lux
  • Bernd Fröhlich
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6938)

Abstract

We developed a ray casting-based rendering system for the visualization of geological subsurface models consisting of multiple highly detailed height fields. Based on a shared out-of-core data management system, we virtualize the access to the height fields, allowing us to treat the individual surfaces at different local levels of detail. The visualization of an entire stack of height-field surfaces is accomplished in a single rendering pass using a two-level acceleration structure for efficient ray intersection computations. This structure combines a minimum-maximum quadtree for empty-space skipping and a sorted list of depth intervals to restrict ray intersection searches to relevant height fields and depth ranges. We demonstrate that our system is able to render multiple height fields consisting of hundreds of millions of points in real-time.

Keywords

Tile Size Intersection Search Page Cache Terrain Render Interval List 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Pajarola, R., Gobbetti, E.: Survey on Semi-regular Multiresolution Models for Interactive Terrain Rendering. The Visual Computer 23, 583–605 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dick, C., Schneider, J., Westermann, R.: Efficient Geometry Compression for GPU-based Decoding in Realtime Terrain Rendering. Computer Graphics Forum 28, 67–83 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dick, C., Krüger, J., Westermann, R.: GPU Ray-Casting for Scalable Terrain Rendering. In: Proceedings of Eurographics 2009 - Areas Papers, Eurographics, pp. 43–50 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Musgrave, F.K.: Grid Tracing: Fast Ray Tracing for Height Fields. Technical Report RR-639, Yale University, Department of Computer Science (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cohen, D., Shaked, A.: Photo-Realistic Imaging of Digital Terrains. Computer Graphics Forum 12, 363–373 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen-Or, D., Rich, E., Lerner, U., Shenkar, V.: A Real-Time Photo-Realistic Visual Flythrough. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 2, 255–265 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qu, H., Qiu, F., Zhang, N., Kaufman, A., Wan, M.: Ray Tracing Height Fields. In: Procedings of Computer Graphics International, pp. 202–207 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oliveira, M.M., Bishop, G., McAllister, D.: Relief Texture Mapping. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH 2000), pp. 359–368. ACM, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Policarpo, F., Oliveira, M.M., Comba, J.L.D.: Real-time Relief Mapping on Arbitrary Polygonal Surfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D 2005, pp. 155–162. ACM, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Policarpo, F., Oliveira, M.M.: Relief Mapping of Non-Height-Field Surface Details. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 55–62. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donnelly, W.: Per-Pixel Displacement Mapping with Distance Functions. In: Pharr, M. (ed.) GPU Gems 2, pp. 123–136. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dummer, J.: Cone Step Mapping: An Iterative Ray-Heightfield Intersection Algorithm (2006), http://www.lonesock.net/files/ConeStepMapping.pdf
  13. 13.
    Oh, K., Ki, H., Lee, C.H.: Pyramidal Displacement Mapping: a GPU based Artifacts-free Ray Tracing Through an Image Pyramid. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, VRST 2006, pp. 75–82. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tevs, A., Ihrke, I., Seidel, H.P.: Maximum Mipmaps for Fast, Accurate, and Scalable Dynamic Height Field Rendering. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 183–190. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    LaMar, E., Hamann, B., Joy, K.I.: Multiresolution Techniques for Interactive Texture-Based Volume Visualization. In: Proceedings of IEEE Visualization 1999, pp. 355–361. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kraus, M., Ertl, T.: Adaptive Texture Maps. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH/EG Graphics Hardware Workshop 2002, Eurographics, pp. 7–15 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lefebvre, S., Darbon, J., Neyret, F.: Unified Texture Management for Arbitrary Meshes. Technical Report RR5210-, INRIA (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lefebvre, S., Hornus, S., Neyret, F.: Octree Textures on the GPU. In: GPU Gems 2, pp. 595–613. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hollemeersch, C., Pieters, B., Lambert, P., Van de Walle, R.: Accelerating Virtual Texturing Using CUDA. In: Engel, W. (ed.) GPU Pro: Advanced Rendering Techniques, pp. 623–641. A.K. Peters, Ltd, Wellesley (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carmona, R., Froehlich, B.: Error-controlled Real-Time Cut Updates for Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering. Computers & Graphics (in press, 2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Plate, J., Grundhöfer, A., Schmidt, B., Fröhlich, B.: Occlusion Culling for Sub-Surface Models in Geo-Scientific Applications. In: Joint Eurographics - IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, pp. 267–272. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Lux
    • 1
  • Bernd Fröhlich
    • 1
  1. 1.Bauhaus-UniversitätWeimarGermany

Personalised recommendations