Stratification of English as a Lingua Franca: Identity Constructions of Learners and Speakers

  • Višnja Josipović Smojver
  • Mateusz-Milan Stanojević
Chapter
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)

Abstract

Studies of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) suggest that some speakers of ELF are willing to mark their (national) identity in their ELF pronunciation, which we call the liberal stance, while others want to strive towards native models (e.g. Jenkins, World Englishes 28:200–207, 2009), which we describe as the conservative stance. A recent study (Stanojević and Josipović, Euro-English and Croatian national identity. Conference paper presented at the New Challenges for Multilingualism in Europe, Dubrovnik, Croatia, April 11–15, 2010) confirms this, suggesting that liberalism versus conservativism towards ELF among Croatian university students is correlated with their major field of study. In this paper we show that there may be a more pervasive process at play behind the liberal versus conservative attitudes to ELF, namely identity construction. Based on the results of a questionnaire conducted among secondary school pupils, university students and employees of a company, we show that different attitudes to one’s own accent, the accent of one’s conversational partners and teaching models primarily hinge on belonging to different groups of participants: learners versus speakers of ELF. Our results support a non-monolithic, stratified ELF model, which allows changes in accordance with the needs and identity construction of its speakers.

Keywords

Native Speaker Identity Construction Conversational Partner Foreign Accent Speaker Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Moira Kostić Bobanović, Snježana Kereković, Višnja Kabalin Borenić, Mario Brdar, Zrinka Jelaska, Kristina Cergol, Jelena Parizoska, Ivanka Rajh, Ana Poljak, Anamarija Kaštelanac, Žarko Magdić, Maja Bradić, Marina Mioč, Katarina Seljan, and Marijana Pejaković for their help in administering the questionnaire.

References

  1. Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Revised and extended edition. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Baxter, James. 1991. How should I speak English? American-ly, Japanese-ly or internationally. In Teaching English pronunciation: a book of readings, ed. Adam Brown, 53–71. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Canagarajah, Suresh. 2007. Lingua franca English, multilingual communities, and language acquisition. The Modern English Journal 91:923–939.Google Scholar
  4. Cogo, Alessia. 2009. Accommodating difference in ELF conversations: A study of pragmatic strategies. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 254–273. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Crystal, David. 2004. The language revolution. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dewey, Martin. 2007. English as a lingua franca and globalization: An interconnected perspective. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17:332–354.Google Scholar
  7. Dewey, Martin. 2009. English as a lingua franca: Heightened variability and theoretical implications. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 60–83. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Ehrenreich, Susanne. 2009. English as a lingua franca in multinational corporations – exploring business communities of practice. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 126–151. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Erling, Elizabeth J, and Tom Bartlett. 2006. Making English their own: The use of ELF among students of English at the Free University of Berlin. Nordic Journal of English Studies 5: 9–40.Google Scholar
  10. Firth, Alan. 2009. Doing not being a foreign language learner: English as a lingua franca in the workplace and (some) implications for SLA. IRAL—International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 47:127–156.Google Scholar
  11. Firth, Alan, and Johannes Wagner. 1997. On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research. The Modern Language Journal 81:285–300.Google Scholar
  12. Gatbonton, Elizabeth, Pavel Trofimovich, and Michael Magid. 2005. Learners’ ethnic group affiliation and L2 pronunciation accuracy: A sociolinguistic investigation. TESOL Quarterly 39:489–511.Google Scholar
  13. Görlach, Manfred. 2002. Still more Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  14. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2000. The phonology of English as an international language: new models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2002. A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an international language. Applied Linguistics 23:83–103.Google Scholar
  16. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2005. Implementing an international approach to English pronunciation: The role of teacher attitudes and identity. TESOL Quarterly 39:535–543.Google Scholar
  17. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2006a. Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly 41:157–181.Google Scholar
  18. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2006b. English pronunciation and second language speaker identity. In The sociolinguistics of identity, ed. Tope Omoniyi and Goodith White, 75–91. London, New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  19. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2007. English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Jenkins, Jennifer. 2009. English as a lingua franca: interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes 28: 200–207.Google Scholar
  21. Josipović Smojver, Višnja. 2010. Foreign accent and levels of analysis: interference between English and Croatian. In Issues in accents of English 2: variability and norm, ed. Ewa Waniek-Klimczak, 23–35. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Kaštelanac, Anamarija. 2010. The attitude of secondary-school pupils from Zadar to English pronunciation. (ms.) Unpublished graduation thesis. University of Zagreb.Google Scholar
  23. Mauranen, Anna, and Elina Ranta. eds. 2009. English as a lingua franca: Studies and findings. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Mihaljević Djigunović, Jelena. 2007. Croatian EFL learners’ affective profile, aspirations and attitudes to English classes. Metodika 8: 115–126.Google Scholar
  25. Phillips, Elaine M. 1992. The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Journal 76: 14–26.Google Scholar
  26. Pitzl, Marie-Luise. 2009. ‘We should not wake up any dogs’: Idiom and metaphor in ELF. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 298–322. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. Poljak, Ana. 2011. Attitudes of secondary-school EFL learners towards the pronunciation of English. (ms.) Unpublished graduation thesis. University of Zagreb.Google Scholar
  28. Prodromou, Luke. 2008. English as a lingua franca: a corpus-based analysis. London, New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  29. Pullin Stark, Patricia. 2009. No joke—this is serious! Power, solidarity and humour in Business English as a Lingua Franca (BELF). In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 152–177. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Ranta, Elina. 2009. Syntactic features in spoken ELF—learner language or spoken grammar? In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 84–106. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2001. Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11:133–158.Google Scholar
  32. Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2009. ELF findings: form and function. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 37–59. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Smit, Ute. 2009. Emic evaluations and interactive processes in a classroom community of practice. In English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, ed. Anna Mauranen and Elina Ranta, 200–224. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. Stanojević, Mateusz-Milan, and Višnja Josipović Smojver. 2010. Euro-English and Croatian national identity. Conference paper presented at the New Challenges for Multilingualism in Europe, Dubrovnik, Croatia, April 11–15 2010.Google Scholar
  35. Stanojević, Mateusz-Milan, and Višnja Josipović Smojver. 2011. Euro-English and Croatian national identity: Are Croatian university students ready for English as a lingua franca? Suvremena lingvistika 37: 105–130.Google Scholar
  36. Trudgill, Peter. 1973. The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society. Penguin.Google Scholar
  38. Woodrow, Lindy. 2006. Anxiety and Speaking English as a Second Language. RELC Journal 37: 308–328.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Višnja Josipović Smojver
    • 1
  • Mateusz-Milan Stanojević
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations