Advertisement

Where to Sit? The Study and Implementation of Seat Selection in Public Places

  • Elin Carstensdottir
  • Kristin Gudmundsdottir
  • Gunnar Valgardsson
  • Hannes Vilhjalmsson
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6895)

Abstract

The way people behave in public places when selecting a seat should be of interest to anyone working with virtual people and environments such as in the simulation, movie, or games industry. This study, conducted in a café and a restaurant, was meant to gather information about this behaviour. In particular whether a behavioural pattern could be found and whether there is a notable difference in the behaviour of individuals and groups. The study found that specific behavioural patterns exist in these situations. These results lead to some guidelines for behaviour design as well as a model of seat selection based on utility. The model was implemented in the CADIA Populus Social Simulation engine.

Keywords

Seating behaviour seat selection seat preference virtual people social simulation artificial intelligence 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cafaro, A., Gaito, R., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Animating idle gaze in public places. In: Ruttkay, Z., Kipp, M., Nijholt, A., Vilhjálmsson, H.H., et al. (eds.) IVA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5773, pp. 250–256. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jonsdottir, G.R., Thórisson, K.R.: Teaching computers to conduct spoken interviews: Breaking the realtime barrier with learning. In: Ruttkay, Z., Kipp, M., Nijholt, A., Vilhjálmsson, H.H. (eds.) IVA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5773, pp. 446–459. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kendon, A.: Conducting interaction: Patterns of Behavior in Focused Encounters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kendon, A.: Spacing and orientation in co-present interaction. In: Esposito, A., Campbell, N., Vogel, C., Hussain, A., Nijholt, A. (eds.) Second COST 2102. LNCS, vol. 5967, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohno, R.: Seat preference in public squares and distribution of the surrounding people: An examination of the validity of using visual simulation. In: Dechne, S., Walz, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ohno Labratory. University of Applied Sciences Dortmund, Dortmund (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pedica, C., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Social perception and steering for online avatars. In: Prendinger, H., Lester, J.C., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) IVA 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5208, pp. 104–116. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pedica, C., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Spontaneous avatar behavior for human territoriality. In: Ruttkay, Z., Kipp, M., Nijholt, A., Vilhjálmsson, H.H. (eds.) IVA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5773, pp. 344–357. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pedica, C., Vilhjalmsson, H., Larusdottir, M.: Avatars in conversation: The importance of simulating territorial behavior. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Philadelphia, PA, USA, September 20-22. LNCS (LNAI), pp. 336–342. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Scheflen, A.E.: Organization of behavior in face-to-face interaction. In: Micro-Territories in Human Interaction, pp. 159–173. Mauton & Co, Netherlands (1975)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scheflen, A.E.: Human territories: how we behave in space time. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elin Carstensdottir
    • 1
  • Kristin Gudmundsdottir
    • 1
  • Gunnar Valgardsson
    • 1
  • Hannes Vilhjalmsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Analysis and Design of Intelligent Agents, School of Computer ScienceReykjavik UniversityReykjavikIceland

Personalised recommendations