Providing Gender to Embodied Conversational Agents
Communication, along with other factors, varies with gender. Significant work as been done around embodied conversational agents (ECAs) verbal and non-verbal behaviour but gender issue has often been ignored. Yet, together with personality, culture and other factors, gender is a feature that impacts the perception and thus the believability of the characters. The main goal of this work is to understand how gender can be provided to ECAs, and provide a very simple model that allows for existing tools to overcome such limitation. The proposed system was developed around SAIBA Framework using SmartBody as the behavior realizer and tries to address this problem by adding a set of involuntary gender specific movements to the agents behaviour in an automatic manner. This is achieved by revising and complementing the work done by the existing non-verbal behaviour generators. Focusing mainly on non-verbal behaviour, our agents with gender were tested to see if users were able to perceive the gender bias of the behaviours being performed. Results have shown that gender is correctly perceived, and also has effects when paired with an accurate gender appearance.
KeywordsMultiagent System Empty Space Autonomous Agent Body Language Conversational Agent
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Brannon, L.: Gender: Psychological Perspectives, 6th edn. Pearson Education, London (1993)Google Scholar
- 2.Breitfuss, W., Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M.: Automated generation of non-verbal behavior for virtual embodied characters. In: ICMI 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, pp. 319–322. ACM, New York (2001)Google Scholar
- 5.Ekman, P., Friesen, W.: The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica 1, 49–98 (1969)Google Scholar
- 6.Glass, L.: He Says, She Says. Perigee Trade Publisher (1993)Google Scholar
- 8.Knapp, M., Hall, J.: Nonverbal communication in human interaction. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont (2005)Google Scholar
- 9.Kopp, S., Krenn, B., Marsella, S.C., Marshall, A.N., Pelachaud, C., Pirker, H., Thórisson, K.R., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Towards a common framework for multimodal generation: The behavior markup language. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 205–217. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Faade: An experiment in building a fully-realized interactive drama. In: Game Developers Conference, Game Design Track (2003)Google Scholar
- 11.Maya, V., Lamolle, M., Pelachaud, C.: Influences and embodied conversational agents. In: AAMAS 2004: Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 1306–1307. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
- 13.Su, W.-P., Pham, B.: Wardhani.: Personality and emotion-based high-level control of affective story characters. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 281–293 (2007)Google Scholar
- 14.Thiebaux, M., Marsella, S., Marshall, A., Kallmann, M.: Smartbody: behavior realization for embodied conversational agents. In: AAMAS 2008: Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 151–158. IFAAMAS (2008)Google Scholar
- 15.Tiljander, C.: Social gender norms in body language: The construction of stereotyped gender differences in body language in the american sitcom friends. Technical report, Karlstads universitet (2007)Google Scholar