Advertisement

Posture, Relationship, and Discourse Structure

Models of Nonverbal Behavior for Long-Term Interaction
  • Daniel Schulman
  • Timothy Bickmore
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6895)

Abstract

We present an empirical investigation of nonverbal behavior in long-term interaction spanning multiple conversations, in the context of a developing interpersonal relationship. Based on a longitudinal video corpus of human-human counseling conversation, we develop a model of the occurrence of posture shifts which incorporates changes that occur both within a single conversation and over multiple conversations. Implications for the design and implementation of virtual agents are discussed, with a particular focus on agents designed for long-term interaction.

Keywords

relational agent embodied conversational agent nonverbal behavior relationship posture discourse structure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen, P.A.: Nonverbal immediacy in interpersonal communication. In: Siegman, A.W., Feldstein, S. (eds.) Multichannel Integrations of Nonverbal Behavior, pp. 1–36. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1985)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B.: lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes (2011), http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4, R package version 0.999375-39
  3. 3.
    Bernieri, F.J.: Coordinated movement and rapport in teacher-student interactions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 12(2), 120–138 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bickmore, T.: Relational Agents: Effecting Change through Human-Computer Relationships. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bickmore, T., Schulman, D., Yin, L.: Maintaining engagement in long-term interventions with relational agents. Applied Artificial Intelligence 24(6), 648–666 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bozdogan, H.: Model selection and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika 52(3), 345–370 (1987)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cassell, J., Gill, A.J., Tepper, P.A.: Coordination in conversation and rapport. In: Workshop on Embodied Language Processing, pp. 41–50. Association for Computational Linguistics (June 2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cassell, J., Nakano, Y.I., Bickmore, T.W., Sidner, C.L., Rich, C.: Non-verbal cues for discourse structure. In: ACL 2001: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 114–123. Association for Computational Linguistics, Morristown (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. In: SIGGRAPH 2001: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 477–486. ACM, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grosz, B.J., Sidner, C.L.: Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse. Computational Linguistics 12(3), 175–204 (1986)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hatcher, R.L., Gillaspy, A.J.: Development and validation of a revised short version of the Working Alliance Inventory. Psychotherapy Research 16(1), 12–25 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kendon, A.: Some relationships between body motion and speech. In: Seigman, A., Pope, B. (eds.) Studies in Dyadic Communication, pp. 177–216. Pergamon Press, Elmsford (1972)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lafrance, M.: Nonverbal synchrony and rapport: Analysis by the Cross-Lag panel technique. Social Psychology Quarterly 42(1), 66–70 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    LaFrance, M., Ickes, W.: Posture mirroring and interactional involvement: Sex and sex typing effects. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 5(3), 139–154 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Martin, D.J., Garske, J.P., Davis, M.K.: Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68(3), 438–450 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCulloch, C.E., Neuhaus, J.M.: Generalized Linear Mixed Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R Development Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria (2011), http://www.R-project.org/, ISBN 3-900051-07-0
  18. 18.
    Scheflen, A.E.: The significance of posture in communication systems. Psychiatry 27, 316–331 (1964)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schulman, D., Bickmore, T.: Modeling behavioral manifestations of coordination and rapport over multiple conversations. In: Allbeck, J., Badler, N., Bickmore, T., Pelachaud, C., Safonova, A. (eds.) IVA 2010. LNCS, vol. 6356, pp. 132–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tickle-Degnen, L., Gavett, E.: Changes in nonverbal behavior during the development of therapeutic relationships. In: Philippot, P., Feldman, R.S., Coats, E.J. (eds.) Nonverbal Behavior in Clinical Settings, ch. 4, pp. 75–110. Oxford University Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Schulman
    • 1
  • Timothy Bickmore
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Computer and Information ScienceNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations