Ethical Issues of Artificial Biomedical Applications

  • Athanasios Alexiou
  • Maria Psixa
  • Panagiotis Vlamos
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 364)

Abstract

While the plethora of artificial biomedical applications is enriched and combined with the possibilities of artificial intelligence, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, the variability in the ideological use of such concepts is associated with bioethical issues and several legal aspects. The convergence of bioethics and computer ethics, attempts to illustrate and approach problems, occurring by the fusion of human and machine or even through the replacement of human determination by super intelligence. Several issues concerning the effects of artificial biomedical applications will be discussed, considering the upcoming post humanism period.

Keywords

Bioethics Artificial Intelligence in Biomedicine Bioinformatics Nanotechnology Post humanism 

References

  1. 1.
    Leopold, A.: A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches here and there. Oxford University Press, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vo-Dinh, T.: Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine: Methods, Devices, and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Niemeyer, C.M., Mirkin, C.A.: Nanobiotechnology: Concepts, Applications and Perspectives. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bostrom, N.: Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards. Journal of Evolution and Technology 9 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bostrom, N.: How Long Before Superintelligence? International Journal of Futures Studies 2 (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hongladarom, S.: Ethics of Bioinformatics: A convergence between Bioethics and Computer Ethics. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 9(1), 37–44 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roco, M.C., Bainbridge, W.S.: Converging technologies for improving human performance. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 4, 281–295 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drexler, E.: Engines of Creation. Bantam, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kubik, T., et al.: Nanotechnology on duty in medical applications. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6, 17–33 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Craighead, H.: Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules. Nature 442, 387–393 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allhoff, F., Lin, P.: What’s so special about nanotechnology and nanoethics? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20(2), 179–190 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Patri, A., Majoros, I., Baker, J.: Dendritic polymer macromolecular carriers for drug delivery; using nanotechnology for drug development and delivery. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 6(4), 466–471 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bainbridge, W.S., Roco, M.C.: Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations, pp. 119–132. Converging Technologies in Society, Springer (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurzweil, R.: The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Inteligence. Viking, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moravec, H.: Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. Oxford University Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mardyani, S., Jiang, W., Lai, J., Zhang, J., Chan, C.W.: Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology. Springer, US (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oberdörster, G., et al.: Nanotoxicity: An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environmental Health Perspective 113, 823–839 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Preston, C.J.: The Promise and Threat of Nanotechnology. Can Environmental Ethics Guide US? International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 11(1), 19–44 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bostrom, N.: In Defence of Posthuman Dignity. Bioethics 19(3), 202–214 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kass, L.: Life, Liberty, and Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics, p. 48. Encounter Books, San Francisco (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Annas, G., Andrews, L., Isasi, R.: Protecting the Endangered Human: Toward an International Treaty Prohibiting Cloning and Inheritable Alterations. American Journal of Law and Medicine 28(2&3), 162 (2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pool, R.: How society shapes technology. In: Teich, A.H. (ed.) Technology and the Future, 9th edn., pp. 13–22. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berne, R.W.: Towards the conscientious development of ethical nanotechnology. Science and Engineering Ethics 10, 627–638 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sweeney, E.A.: Social and Ethical Dimensions of Nanoscale Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 12(3), 435–464 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Solodoukhina, D.: Bioethics and legal aspects of potential health and environmental risks of nanotechnology. In: Nanotechnology-Toxicological Issues and Environmental Safety, pp. 167–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Donaldson, K.: Resolving the nanoparticles paradox. Nanomedicine 1, 229–234 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alexiou, A., Vlamos, P.: Ethics at the Crossroads of Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology. In: 8th International Conference of Computer Ethics and Philosophical Enquiry (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios Alexiou
    • 1
  • Maria Psixa
    • 1
  • Panagiotis Vlamos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsIonian UniversityCorfuGreece

Personalised recommendations