Legal Considerations

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Graham J. Burton
  • Rebecca N. Baergen


Numerous litigations against hospitals and obstetricians take place in which the placental findings become an important participant in advising the disputing parties on perinatal circumstances. These litigations are initiated most often on behalf of children with cerebral palsy, occasionally with malformations, stillbirth, or with other less than optimal or expected outcomes (Rosenblatt and Hurst 1989; Richards and Thomasson 1992). Record keeping of the clinical circumstances and a professional placental study prove to be of great importance in many cases. Weinstein (1988), who wrote a concise review on the topic, asserted that such litigation is principally the result of the following:


Cerebral Palsy Fetal Hypoxia Placental Pathology Monochorionic Twin Villous Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  • Graham J. Burton
    • 2
  • Rebecca N. Baergen
    • 3
  1. 1.La JollaUSA
  2. 2.Physiological LaboratoryUniversity of Cambridge Centre for Trophoblast ResearchCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine New York-Presbyterian HospitalWeill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

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