Virtual Location-Based Indoor Guide

  • Tiago Fernandes
  • João Jacob
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6944)


This article proposes a solution for user localization in indoor areas using the compass, accelerometer and Bluetooth of a mobile device to calculate the user’s position within this virtual environment, for it to be used in both entertainment-industry mobile games and serious games. The user’s position is viewed through a 3D virtual environment representing his real position and orientation. The basis of this solution is the utilization of a mobile Bluetooth-enabled device, such as a PDA, where the application is deployed. The application will then use the mobile phone’s Bluetooth to determine the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of beacons located within the area. This information is then used to determine the virtual position of the user by triangulation. Additional sensors, such as the accelerometer or the compass provide extra precision and compensate the latency that the Bluetooth positioning solution provides. This solution has proved to be reasonably accurate, inexpensive, and very usable, as it uses virtually no input from the user (since the input the user provides is actually passive). Also, it does not conflict with any other Bluetooth devices, such as other mobile phones.


Mobile Indoor Localization Bluetooth 3D Environment Virtual Guide Serious Games 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Otsason, V., Varshavsky, A., LaMarca, A., de Lara, E.: Accurate GSM indoor localization. In: Beigl, M., Intille, S.S., Rekimoto, J., Tokuda, H. (eds.) UbiComp 2005. LNCS, vol. 3660, pp. 141–158. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Priyantha, N.B., Chakraborty, A., Balakrishnan, H.: The Cricket Location-Support System. ACM MobiCom (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kindenberg, T., Barton, J.: A Web-Based Nomadic Computing System. Hewlett-Packard (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    González-Castaño, F.J., Garcia-Reinoso, J.: Bluetooth Location Networks. In: IEEE GlobeCom 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing. IEEE, 57–66 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dishongh, T.J., McGrath, M.: Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Applications. Artech House, Massachusetts (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ørbæk, P.: Positioning and Location Technologies (2005), (last viewed on 12/12/2010)
  8. 8.
    Android: The Developer’s Guide, (last viewed on 21/12/2010)
  9. 9.
    Wiederhold, B.K., Wiederhold, M.D.: Virtual Reality Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. Amrican Psychological Association, Washington D.C (2004), Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bishop, J., Kalson, A., Strickland, K., Schell, J.: Biohazard, Carnegie Mellon Entertainment Technology Center et al (2003),
  11. 11.
    Alvarez, J., Djaouti, D., Rampnoux, O.: Serious Games Market: Some key figures. LudoScience (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacob J. Coelho A., Issues in the development of location-based games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacob, J., Coelho, A.: Geo Wars- The development of a location-based game. Prisma.Com (14) (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiago Fernandes
    • 1
  • João Jacob
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculdade de EngenhariaUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations