Advertisement

Exploring Haptic Feedback in Exergames

  • Tadeusz Stach
  • T. C. Nicholas Graham
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6947)

Abstract

Exergames combine entertainment and exercise in an effort to encourage people to be more physically active. Although exergames require active input, interactions are less physical than those experienced in real-world exercise. Interactions can feel artificial, limiting the captivating experience exergames aim to provide. To address this problem, haptics have been proposed as a means of providing additional feedback to players through the sense of touch. However, there is very little empirical evidence supporting the benefits of haptics in exergames. To address this, we have identified and evaluated three ways in which haptic feedback can enhance exergames: by helping to balance group exercise among people of different fitness levels, by guiding players toward safe and healthy interaction, and by increasing peoples’ sense of virtual presence in exergames. We present three novel exergames incorporating haptic feedback, and report on experiments investigating their success. We find that haptics which are consistent with actions displayed on-screen increase immersion and improve enjoyment. However, we discover pitfalls when using haptics to represent phenomena that do not have a physical basis. These results allow us to present a set of design issues for haptic feedback in exergames.

Keywords

Exergames haptics force-feedback exercise video games exertion interfaces active games 

Supplementary material

Electronic Supplementary material (29,489 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Ahn, M., Kwon, S., Park, B., Cho, K., Choe, S.P., Hwang, I., Jang, H., Park, J., Rhee, Y., Song, J.: Running or Gaming. In: Proc. ACE, pp. 345–348 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allender, S., Cowburn, G., Foster, C.: Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity Among Children and Adults: a Review of Qualitative Studies. Health Education Research 21(6), 826–835 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basdogan, C., Ho, C., Srinivasan, M.A., Slater, M.: An Experimental Study on the Role of Touch in Shared Virtual Environments. TOCHI 7(4), 443–460 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beauchamp, M.R., Carron, A.V., McCutcheon, S., Harper, O.: Older Adults’ Preferences for Exercising Alone Versus in Groups: Considering Contextual Congruence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 33, 200–206 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brisswalter, J., Hausswirth, C., Smith, D., Vercruyssen, F., Vallier, J.M.: Energy Optimal Cadence vs. Freely-Chosen Cadence During Cycling: Effect of Exercise Duration. Int. J. Sports Medicine 22(1), 60–64 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buttussi, F., Chittaro, L., Ranon, R., Verona, A.: Adaptation of graphics and gameplay in fitness games by exploiting motion and physiological sensors. In: Butz, A., Fisher, B., Krüger, A., Olivier, P., Owada, S. (eds.) SG 2007. LNCS, vol. 4569, pp. 85–96. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang, D.: Haptics: Gaming’s New Sensation. Computer 35(8), 84–86 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohen, J.: Statistical Power Analysis for Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1988)MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Faust, M., Yoo, Y.: Haptic Feedback in Pervasive Games. In: Proc. PerGames (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferber, A., Peshkin, M., Colgate, J.E.: Using Kinesthetic and Tactile Cues to Maintain Exercise Intensity. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 224–235 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Foster, C., Porcari, J.P., Battista, A., Udermann, B., Wright, G., Lucia, A.: The Risk in Exercise Training. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 2(4), 279–284 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graves, L., Stratton, G., Ridgers, N.D., Cable, N.T.: Comparison of Energy Expenditure in Adolescents when Playing New Generation and Sedentary Computer Games: Cross Sectional Study. British Medical Journal 335, 1282–1284 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hohepa, M., Schofield, G., Kolt, G.S.: Physical Activity: What do High School Students Think? Journal of Adolescent Health 39, 328–336 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hunicke, R.: The Case for Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Games. In: Proc. ACE, pp. 429–433 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ijsselsteijn, W., de Kort, Y., Westernik, J., de Jager, M., Bonants, R.: Fun and Sports: Enhancing the Home Fitness Experience. In: Rauterberg, M. (ed.) ICEC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3166, pp. 73–81. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khoo, E.T., Lee, S.P., Cheok, A.D., Kodagoda, S., Zhou, Y., Toh, G.S.: Age Invaders: Social and Physical Inter-Generational Family Entertainment. In: Proc. CHI, pp. 243–246 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mokka, S., Väätänen, A., Heinilä, J., Välkkynen, P.: Fitness Computer Game with a Bodily User Interface. In: Proc. ICEC, pp. 1–3 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morelli, T., Foley, J., Columna, L., Lieberman, L., Folmer, E.: VI-Tennis: A Vibrotactile/Audio Exergame for Players who are Visually Impaired. In: Proc. FDG, pp. 147–154 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mueller, F., Vetere, F., Gibbs, M.R., Agamanolis, S., Sheridan, J.: Jogging Over a Distance: The Influence of Design in Parallel Exertion Games. In: Proc. Siggraph (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mueller, F., Agamanolis, S., Gibbs, M., Vetere, F.: Remote Impact: Shadowboxing over a Distance. In: Proc. CHI, pp. 3531–3532 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mueller, F., Stevens, G., Thorogood, A., O’Brien, S., Volker, W.: Sports Over a Distance. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 11(8), 633–645 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Brien, H.L., Toms, E.G., Kelloway, E.K., Kelley, E.: Developing and Evaluating a Reliable Measure of User Engagement. In: Proc. American Society for Information Science and Technology, pp. 1–10 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pollock, M., Gaesser, G., Butcher, J., Despres, J., Dishman, R., Franklin, B., Garber, C.: The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults. Med. & Sci. in Sports and Exercise 30(6), 975–991 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramsamy, P., Haffegee, A., Jamieson, R., Alexandrov, V.: Using Haptics to Improve Immersion in Virtual Environments. In: Proc. ICCS, pp. 603–609 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sallnäs, E., Rassmus-Gröhn, K., Sjöström, C.: Supporting Presence in Collaborative Environments by Haptic Force Feedback. Trans. Comput. -Hum. Interact. 7(4), 461–476 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shephard, R.J.: PAR-Q Canadian Home Fitness Test and Exercise Alternatives. Sports Medicine 5, 185–195 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sinclair, J., Hingston, P., Masek, M., Nosaka, K.: Using a Virtual Body to Aid in Exergaming System Development. Comput. Graph. Appl. 29(2), 39–48 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stach, T., Graham, T.C.N., Yim, J., Rhodes, R.E.: Heart Rate Control of Exercise Video Games. In: Proc. GI, pp. 125–132 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Suzuki, K., Jansson, H.: An Analysis of Driver’s Steering Behaviour During Auditory or Haptic Warnings for the Designing of Lane Departure Warning System. JSAE Review 24(1), 65–70 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Swain, D.P., Franklin, B.A.: Comparison of Cardioprotective Benefits of Vigorous Versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise. The American Journal of Cardiology 97(1), 141–147 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Warburton, D.E.R., Bredin, S.S.D., Horita, L.T.L., Zbogar, D., Scott, J.M., Esch, B.T.A., Rhodes, R.E.: The Health Benefits of Interactive Video Game Exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 32(3), 655–663 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7(3), 225–240 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yim, J., Graham, T.C.N.: Using Games to Increase Exercise Motivation. In: Proc. Future Play, pp. 166–173 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tadeusz Stach
    • 1
  • T. C. Nicholas Graham
    • 1
  1. 1.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations