Modelling the Behaviour of Crowds in Panicked Conditions
Recently there has been an increasing amount of research being done on the topic of swarm intelligence and modelling crowd behaviour. The reasons for this being that a variety of disciplines find simulations of swarm intelligence to be very useful. There is however one area in particular in which more research could be done, the modelling of crowds as they disperse. The dispersal of crowds can occur for several reasons, such as naturally dispersing as a crowd leaves a confined area, or because of perceived dangers suddenly appearing within the crowd which can cause panic and confusion. This work is focused on the later of these causes. Specifically, this paper will examine how modelling groups within a crowd can effect the simulation of crowds dispersing. We were able to determine that by incorporating group behaviour into our model it did have an impact on many factors of the simulation, including the time it took for agents to escape. By taking into account such group structures within crowds we believe future simulations can be made much more accurate.
KeywordsGroup Structure Swarm Intelligence Safe Distance Group Position Visual Distance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Musse, S.R., Ulicny, B., Aubel, A.: Groups and Crowd Simulation. In: Thalmann, D. (ed.) Proc. of International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM, New York (2005)Google Scholar
- 2.Furtado, V., Melo, A., Coelho, A., Menezes, R.: A Crime Simulation Model Based on Social Networks and Swarm Intelligence. In: Proc. of Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 56–57. ACM, New York (2007)Google Scholar
- 4.Sime, J.D.: Crowd Psychology and Engineering. Safety Science 21(1), 1–14 (1995); Science Direct. Web (August 7, 2010)Google Scholar
- 6.Kaup, D.J., Clarke, T.L., Oleson, R., Malone, L.C.: Crowd Dynamics Simulation Research (August 8, 2010), http://brimsconference.org/archives/2007/papers/07-BRIMS-018.pdf
- 7.Ulicny, B., Thalmann, D.: Crowd Simulation for Interactive Virtual Environments and VR Training Systems. In: Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Thalmann, D. (eds.) Computer Animation and Simulation 2001: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop in Manchester, UK, September 2-3, pp. 163–171. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Daamen, W., Hoogendoorn, S.P.: Experimental Research of Pedestrian Walking Behavior. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1828, 20–36 (2003); Web (August 8, 2010)Google Scholar
- 9.Qiu, F., Hu, X.: Exploiting Spatial-temporal Heterogeneity for Agent-based Simulation of Pedestrian Crowd Behavior, Web (August 8, 2010), http://atom3.cs.mcgill.ca/conferences/Cargese/2009/material/papers/hu.pdf
- 10.Loscos, C., Marchal, D., Meyer, A.: Intuitive Crowd Behaviour in Dense Urban Environments using Local Laws. Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics, 122 (2003)Google Scholar
- 11.Braun, A., Musse, S.R., de Oliveira, L.P.L., Bodmann, B.E.J.: Modeling Individual Behaviors in Crowd Simulation. In: 16th International Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents, CASA 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
- 12.Aveni, A.F.: The Not-So-Lonely Crowd: Friendship Groups in Collective Behavior. Sociometry 40(1), 96–99 (1977); JSTOR Web (August 8, 2010)Google Scholar
- 13.OpenSteer. SourceForge. N.p., (October 25, 2004), Web (April 4, 2011), http://opensteer.sourceforge.net/index.html