Advertisement

Cervix and Vagina

  • Mariano Volpacchio
  • Joan C. Vilanova
  • Antonio Luna
Chapter
Part of the Learning Imaging book series (LEARN)

Abstract

About 90% of cervical carcinomas are squamous cell carcinoma, 5–10% are adenocarcinoma, and others are rare histologic subtypes. Prevalence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma has been decreasing because of cytologic screening (Papanicolaou smear). Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction. In younger women, the tumor tends to grow outward (exophytic growth pattern). In elderly patients, cervical cancer tends to grow inward along the cervical canal (endophytic growth pattern). Occasionally, as in this case, cervical cancer may present in an advanced stage, and it is diagnosed incidentally by imaging.

Keywords

Cervical Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Examination Vaginal Vault Uterosacral Ligament Urethral Diverticulum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

Books

  1. Dähnert W (2007) Radiology review manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Fleischer AC, Javitt MC, Jeffrey RB, Jones HW (1997) Clinical gynecologic imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Ros PR, Mortele KJ, Lee S, Pelsser V (2006) CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvis: a teaching file. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Rumack CM, Wilson S, Charboneau JW, Johnson JA (2005) Diagnostic ultrasound. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  5. Semelka RC (2010) Abdomino pelvic MRI. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Articles

  1. Blask AR, Sanders RC, Rock JA (1991) Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies: demonstration with sonography. II. Teenagers. Radiology 179:84–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cannistra SA, Niloff JM (1996) Cancer of the uterine cervix (review). N Engl J Med 334:1030–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carrington BM, Hricak H (1991) In: Hricak H, Carrington BM (eds) MRI of the pelvis: a text atlas. Conn: Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, pp 93–184Google Scholar
  4. Coutinho A Jr, Bittencourt LK, Pires CE, Junqueira F, Lima CM, Coutinho E, Domingues MA, Domingues RC, Marchiori E (2011) MR imaging in deep pelvic endometriosis: a pictorial essay. Radiographics 31(2):549–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Danforth DN, Scott JR (1986) Obstetrics and gynecology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Hawnaur J (2004) Uterine and cervical tumours. In: Husband JE, Reznek RH (eds) Imaging in oncology, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 467–496Google Scholar
  7. Healy JC (2008) Female reproductive system. In: Standring S (ed) Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice, 40th edn. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, London, pp 1289–1290Google Scholar
  8. Son H, Kositwattanarerk A, Hayes MP, Chuang L, Rahaman J, Heiba S, Machac J, Zakashansky K, Kostakoglu L (2010) PET/CT evaluation of cervical cancer: spectrum of disease. Radiographics 30:1251–1268. doi: 10.1148/rg.305105703 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hricak H, Kim B (1993) Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the female pelvis. J Magn Reson Imaging 3:297–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imaoka I, Wada A, Matsuo M, Yoshida M, Kitagaki H, Sugimura K (2003) MR imaging of disorders associated with female infertility: use in diagnosis, treatment, and management. Radiographics 23:1401–1421. doi: 10.1148/rg.236025115 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Parikh JH, Barton DP, Ind TE, Sohaib SA (2008) MR imaging features of vaginal malignancies. Radiographics 28:49–63. doi: 10.1148/rg.281075065 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bis KG, Vrachliotis TG, Agrawal R, Shetty AN, Maximovich A, Hricak H (1997) Pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging spectrum with laparoscopic correlation and diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics 17:639–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinkel K, Ariche M, Tardivon AA et al (1997) Differentiation between recurrent tumor and benign conditions after treatment of gynecologic pelvic carcinoma: value of dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MR imaging. Radiology 204:55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyadzhyan L, Raman SS, Raz S (2008) Role of static and dynamic MR imaging in surgical pelvic floor dysfunction. Radiographics 28:949–967. doi: 10.1148/rg.284075139 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Milestone BN, Schnall MD, Lenkinski RE, Kressel HY (1991) Cervical carcinoma: MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil. Radiology 180:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Moulopoulos LA, Varma DG, Charnsangavej C, Wallace S (1993) Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography appearance of asymptomatic paravaginal cysts. Clin Imaging 17:126–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Okamoto Y, Tanaka YO, Nishida M, Tsunoda H, Yoshikawa H, Itai Y (2003) MR imaging of the uterine cervix: imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 23:425–445. doi: 10.1148/rg.232025065 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sam JW, Jacobs JE, Birnbaum BA (2002) Spectrum of CT findings in acute pyogenic pelvic inflammatory disease. Radiographics 22:1327–1334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schmidt WA (1995) Pathology of the vagina. In: Fox H, Wells M (eds) Haines and Taylor obstetrical and gynecological pathology, 4th edn. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 176–180Google Scholar
  20. Scoutt LM, McCauley TR, Flynn SD, Luthringer DJ, McCarthy SM (1993) Zonal anatomy of the cervix: correlation of MR imaging and histologic examination of hysterectomy specimens. Radiology 186:159–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Semelka RC, Hricak H, Kim B et al (1997) Pelvic fistula: appearances on MR images. Abdom Imaging 22:91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Siddall KA, Rubens DJ (2005) Multidetector CT of the female pelvis. Radiol Clin North Am 43:1097–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Siegelman ES, Banner MP, Ramchandani P, Schnall MD (1997a) Multicoil MR imaging of symptomatic female urethral and periurethral disease. Radiographics 17:349–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Siegelman ES, Outwater EK, Banner MP, Ramchandi P, Anderson TL, Schnall MD (1997b) High resolution MR imaging of the vagina. Radiographics 17:1183–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yitta S, Hecht EM, Slywotzky CM, Bennett GL (2009) Added value of multiplanar reformation in the multidetector CT evaluation of the female pelvis: a pictorial review. Radiographics 29:1987–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariano Volpacchio
    • 1
  • Joan C. Vilanova
    • 2
  • Antonio Luna
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro diagnóstico RossiBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyClínica Girona-Hospital Sta. CaterinaGironaSpain
  3. 3.Clinica Las Nieves, SercosaJaénSpain

Personalised recommendations