Advertisement

Jasmonates in Plant Defense Responses

  • E. Wassim Chehab
  • Janet Braam
Chapter
Part of the Signaling and Communication in Plants book series (SIGCOMM, volume 14)

Abstract

Plants constantly interact with a wide range of life-threatening organisms including herbivorous arthropods and pathogenic microbes. The plant fatty acid–derived jasmonates produced in response to biotic stresses are essential to survival. These oxylipins constitute part of the plant’s sophisticated strategy to defend itself. Upon biotic attack, the increased accumulation of these metabolites diverts energy away from growth needs and channels it toward defense. The complex interplay between jasmonates and invader-specific elicitors provides the plant with gene expression regulatory potential to launch effective responses against the invaders. Such responses can be either direct, by producing molecules that are toxic to the invading organisms, or indirect, by attracting the natural enemies of such invaders. Jasmonates are also critical components in mediating the plant stress-induced systemic signal(s) to activate defense-related genes. The availability of jasmonate mutants has been crucial in identifying the roles these metabolites play in plant stress responses. In this chapter, we present an overview of jasmonate function in insect and pathogen defense, the cross talk between jasmonates and other phytohormones in fine-tuning such defenses, and the possible role these oxylipins play in mediating mechanoresponses.

Keywords

Salicylic Acid Jasmonic Acid Salicylic Acid Signaling Necrotrophic Fungus Jasmonate Signaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

Research in our lab related to this topic is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB 0817976 to JB

References

  1. Afitlhile, M.M., H. Fukushige, M. Nishimura, and D.F. Hildebrand. 2005. A defect in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation reduces jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol Biochem 43: 603–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht, T., A. Kehlen, K. Stahl, H.D. Knofel, G. Sembdner, and E.W. Weiler. 1993. Quantification of rapid, transient increases in jasmonic acid in wounded plants using a monoclonal antibody. Planta 191: 86–94.Google Scholar
  3. Balbi, V., and A. Devoto. 2008. Jasmonate signalling network in Arabidopsis thaliana: crucial regulatory nodes and new physiological scenarios. New Phytol 177: 301–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartel, B. 1997. Auxin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48: 51–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berrocal-Lobo, M., and A. Molina. 2004. Ethylene response factor 1 mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17: 763–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Birkett, M.A., C.A. Campbell, K. Chamberlain, E. Guerrieri, A.J. Hick, J.L. Martin, M. Matthes, J.A. Napier, J. Pettersson, J.A. Pickett, G.M. Poppy, E.M. Pow, B.J. Pye, L.E. Smart, G.H. Wadhams, L.J. Wadhams, and C.M. Woodcock. 2000. New roles for cis-jasmone as an insect semiochemical and in plant defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 9329–9334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bostock, R.M. 2005. Signal crosstalk and induced resistance: straddling the line between cost and benefit. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43: 545–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boter, M., O. Ruiz-Rivero, A. Abdeen, and S. Prat. 2004. Conserved MYC transcription factors play a key role in jasmonate signaling both in tomato and Arabidopsis. Genes Dev 18: 1577–1591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Braam, J. 1992. Regulation of expression of calmodulin and calmodulin-related genes by environmental stimuli in plants. Cell Calcium 13: 457–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Braam, J. 2005. In touch: plant responses to mechanical stimuli. New Phytol 165: 373–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Braam, J., and R.W. Davis. 1990. Rain-, wind-, and touch-induced expression of calmodulin and calmodulin-related genes in Arabidopsis. Cell 60: 357–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Browse, J. 2005. Jasmonate: an oxylipin signal with many roles in plants. Vitam Horm 72: 431–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruce, T.J., M.C. Matthes, K. Chamberlain, C.M. Woodcock, A. Mohib, B. Webster, L.E. Smart, M.A. Birkett, J.A. Pickett, and J.A. Napier. 2008. cis-jasmone induces Arabidopsis genes that affect the chemical ecology of multitrophic interactions with aphids and their parasitoids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 4553–4558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chassot, C., A. Buchala, H.J. Schoonbeek, J.P. Metraux, and O. Lamotte. 2008. Wounding of Arabidopsis leaves causes a powerful but transient protection against botrytis infection. Plant J 55: 555–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chehab, E.W., R. Kaspi, T. Savchenko, H. Rowe, F. Negre-Zakharov, D. Kliebenstein, and K. Dehesh. 2008. Distinct roles of jasmonates and aldehydes in plant-defense responses. PLoS One 3: e1904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chehab, E.W., E. Eich, and J. Braam. 2009. Thigmomorphogenesis: a complex plant response to mechano-stimulation. J Exp Bot 60: 43–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chehab, E.W., S. Kim, T. Savchenko, D. Kliebenstein, K. Dehesh, and J. Braam. 2011. Intronic T-DNA insertion renders Arabidopsis opr3 a conditional JA producing mutant. Plant Physiol 156: 770–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, H., B.C. McCaig, M. Melotto, S.Y. He, and G.A. Howe. 2004. Regulation of plant arginase by wounding, jasmonate, and the phytotoxin coronatine. J Biol Chem 279: 45998–46007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, H., C.G. Wilkerson, J.A. Kuchar, B.S. Phinney, and G.A. Howe. 2005. Jasmonate-inducible plant enzymes degrade essential amino acids in the herbivore midgut. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 19237–19242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, H., E. Gonzales-Vigil, C.G. Wilkerson, and G.A. Howe. 2007. Stability of plant defense proteins in the gut of insect herbivores. Plant Physiol 143: 1954–1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chini, A., S. Fonseca, G. Fernandez, B. Adie, J.M. Chico, O. Lorenzo, G. Garcia-Casado, I. Lopez-Vidriero, F.M. Lozano, M.R. Ponce, J.L. Micol, and R. Solano. 2007. The JAZ family of repressors is the missing link in jasmonate signalling. Nature 448: 666–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cipollini, D., S. Enright, M.B. Traw, and J. Bergelson. 2004. Salicylic acid inhibits jasmonic acid-induced resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to spodoptera exigua. Mol Ecol 13: 1643–1653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Conconi, A., M.J. Smerdon, G.A. Howe, and C.A. Ryan. 1996. The octadecanoid signalling pathway in plants mediates a response to ultraviolet radiation. Nature 383: 826–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Conrath, U., G.J. Beckers, V. Flors, P. Garcia-Agustin, G. Jakab, F. Mauch, M.A. Newman, C.M. Pieterse, B. Poinssot, M.J. Pozo, A. Pugin, U. Schaffrath, J. Ton, D. Wendehenne, L. Zimmerli, and B. Mauch-Mani. 2006. Priming: getting ready for battle. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19: 1062–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Constabel, C.P., D.R. Bergey, and C.A. Ryan. 1995. Systemin activates synthesis of wound-inducible tomato leaf polyphenol oxidase via the octadecanoid defense signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 407–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Creelman, R.A., and J.E. Mullet. 1995. Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 4114–4119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Creelman, R.A., and J.E. Mullet. 1997. Oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and jasmonates: nontraditional regulators of plant growth, development, and gene expression. Plant Cell 9: 1211–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cruz Castillo, M., C. Martinez, A. Buchala, J.P. Metraux, and J. Leon. 2004. Gene-specific involvement of beta-oxidation in wound-activated responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 135: 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. De Moraes, C.M., M.C. Mescher, and J.H. Tumlinson. 2001. Caterpillar-induced nocturnal plant volatiles repel conspecific females. Nature 410: 577–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. De Vos, M., V.R. Van Oosten, R.M. Van Poecke, J.A. Van Pelt, M.J. Pozo, M.J. Mueller, A.J. Buchala, J.P. Metraux, L.C. Van Loon, M. Dicke, and C.M. Pieterse. 2005. Signal signature and transcriptome changes of Arabidopsis during pathogen and insect attack. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18: 923–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Delk, N.A., K.A. Johnson, N.I. Chowdhury, and J. Braam. 2005. CML24, regulated in expression by diverse stimuli, encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that functions in responses to abscisic acid, daylength, and ion stress. Plant Physiol 139: 240–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Delker, C., B.K. Zolman, O. Miersch, and C. Wasternack. 2007. Jasmonate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana requires peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes—additional proof by properties of pex6 and aim1. Phytochemistry 68: 1642–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Demole, E., E. Lederer, and D. Mercier. 1962. Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant charactéristique de l’essence de jasmin. Helv Chim Acta 45: 645–685.Google Scholar
  34. Despres, C., C. Chubak, A. Rochon, R. Clark, T. Bethune, D. Desveaux, and P.R. Fobert. 2003. The Arabidopsis NPR1 disease resistance protein is a novel cofactor that confers redox regulation of DNA binding activity to the basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factor TGA1. Plant Cell 15: 2181–2191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Devoto, A., C. Ellis, A. Magusin, H.S. Chang, C. Chilcott, T. Zhu, and J.G. Turner. 2005. Expression profiling reveals COI1 to be a key regulator of genes involved in wound- and methyl jasmonate-induced secondary metabolism, defence, and hormone interactions. Plant Mol Biol 58: 497–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dharmasiri, N., S. Dharmasiri, and M. Estelle. 2005. The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435: 441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dombrecht, B., G.P. Xue, S.J. Sprague, J.A. Kirkegaard, J.J. Ross, J.B. Reid, G.P. Fitt, N. Sewelam, P.M. Schenk, J.M. Manners, and K. Kazan. 2007. MYC2 differentially modulates diverse jasmonate-dependent functions in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19: 2225–2245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dong, X. 2001. Genetic dissection of systemic acquired resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4: 309–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dong, X. 2004. NPR1, all things considered. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7: 547–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eastmond, P.J., M.A. Hooks, D. Williams, P. Lange, N. Bechtold, C. Sarrobert, L. Nussaume, and I.A. Graham. 2000. Promoter trapping of a novel medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, which is induced transcriptionally during Arabidopsis seed germination. J Biol Chem 275: 34375–34381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ellinger, D., N. Stingl, I.I. Kubigsteltig, T. Bals, M. Juenger, S. Pollmann, S. Berger, D. Schuenemann, and M.J. Mueller. 2010. DONGLE and DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 lipases are not essential for wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonate biosynthesis: redundant lipases contribute to jasmonate formation. Plant Physiol 153: 114–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellis, C., and J.G. Turner. 2001. The Arabidopsis mutant cev1 has constitutively active jasmonate and ethylene signal pathways and enhanced resistance to pathogens. Plant Cell 13: 1025–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ellis, C., I. Karafyllidis, C. Wasternack, and J.G. Turner. 2002. The Arabidopsis mutant cev1 links cell wall signaling to jasmonate and ethylene responses. Plant Cell 14: 1557–1566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Erb, M., J. Ton, J. Degenhardt, and T.C. Turlings. 2008. Interactions between arthropod-induced aboveground and belowground defenses in plants. Plant Physiol 146: 867–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eulgem, T., P.J. Rushton, S. Robatzek, and I.E. Somssich. 2000. The WRKY superfamily of plant transcription factors. Trends Plant Sci 5: 199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Falkenstein, E., B. Groth, A. Mithofer, and E.W. Weiler. 1991. Methyl jasmonate and linolenic acid are potent inducers of tendril coiling. Planta 185: 316–322.Google Scholar
  47. Fang, Y., M.A.L. Smith, and M.F. Pdpin. 1998. Benzyladenine restores anthocyanin pigmentation in suspension cultures of wild vaccinium pahalae. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 54: 113–122.Google Scholar
  48. Farmer, E.E., and C.A. Ryan. 1992. Octadecanoid-derived signals in plants. Trends Cell Biol 2: 236–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Farmer, E.E., R.R. Johnson, and C.A. Ryan. 1992. Regulation of expression of proteinase inhibitor genes by methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. Plant Physiol 98: 995–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Felton, G.W., J.L. Bi, C.B. Summers, A.J. Mueller, and S.S. Duffey. 1994. Potential role of lipoxygenases in defense against insect herbivory. J Chem Ecol 20: 651–666.Google Scholar
  51. Feys, B., C.E. Benedetti, C.N. Penfold, and J.G. Turner. 1994. Arabidopsis mutants selected for resistance to the phytotoxin coronatine are male sterile, insensitive to methyl jasmonate, and resistant to a bacterial pathogen. Plant Cell 6: 751–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fonseca, S., J.M. Chico, and R. Solano. 2009. The jasmonate pathway: the ligand, the receptor and the core signalling module. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12: 539–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Footitt, S., D. Dietrich, A. Fait, A.R. Fernie, M.J. Holdsworth, A. Baker, and F.L. Theodoulou. 2007. The COMATOSE ATP-binding cassette transporter is required for full fertility in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 144: 1467–1480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Frost, C.J., H.M. Appel, J.E. Carlson, C.M. De Moraes, M.C. Mescher, and J.C. Schultz. 2007. Within-plant signalling via volatiles overcomes vascular constraints on systemic signalling and primes responses against herbivores. Ecol Lett 10: 490–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Glazebrook, J. 2005. Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43: 205–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Glazebrook, J., and F.M. Ausubel. 1994. Isolation of phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and characterization of their interactions with bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 8955–8959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Glazebrook, J., M. Zook, F. Mert, I. Kagan, E.E. Rogers, I.R. Crute, E.B. Holub, R. Hammerschmidt, and F.M. Ausubel. 1997. Phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis reveal that PAD4 encodes a regulatory factor and that four PAD genes contribute to downy mildew resistance. Genetics 146: 381–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Green, T.R., and C.A. Ryan. 1972. Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in plant leaves: a possible defense mechanism against insects. Science 175: 776–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Grubb, C.D., and S. Abel. 2006. Glucosinolate metabolism and its control. Trends Plant Sci 11: 89–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Halitschke, R., U. Schittko, G. Pohnert, W. Boland, and I.T. Baldwin. 2001. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, sphingidae) and its natural host nicotiana attenuata. III. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates in herbivore oral secretions are necessary and sufficient for herbivore-specific plant responses. Plant Physiol 125: 711–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Halitschke, R., K. Gase, D. Hui, D.D. Schmidt, and I.T. Baldwin. 2003. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, sphingidae) and its natural host nicotiana attenuata. VI. Microarray analysis reveals that most herbivore-specific transcriptional changes are mediated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugates. Plant Physiol 131: 1894–1902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hause, B., I. Stenzel, O. Miersch, H. Maucher, R. Kramell, J. Ziegler, and C. Wasternack. 2000. Tissue-specific oxylipin signature of tomato flowers: allene oxide cyclase is highly expressed in distinct flower organs and vascular bundles. Plant J 24: 113–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hayashi, M., K. Toriyama, M. Kondo, and M. Nishimura. 1998. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxybutyric acid-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis have defects in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Plant Cell 10: 183–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayashi, M., K. Nito, R. Takei-Hoshi, M. Yagi, M. Kondo, A. Suenaga, T. Yamaya, and M. Nishimura. 2002. Ped3p Is a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that might supply substrates for fatty acid beta-oxidation. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Heidel, A., and I.T. Baldwin. 2004. Microarray analysis of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signalling in responses of nicotiana attenuata to attack by insects from multiple feeding guilds. Plant Cell Environ 2: 1362–1373.Google Scholar
  66. Heil, M., and J. Ton. 2008. Long-distance signalling in plant defence. Trends Plant Sci 13: 264–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Herms, D.A., and W.J. Mattson. 1992. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Q Rev Biol 6: 283–335.Google Scholar
  68. Howe, G.A., and G. Jander. 2008. Plant immunity to insect herbivores. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59: 41–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Howe, G.A., J. Lightner, J. Browse, and C.A. Ryan. 1996. An octadecanoid pathway mutant (JL5) of tomato is compromised in signaling for defense against insect attack. Plant Cell 8: 2067–2077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hu, X., S. Neill, W. Cai, and Z. Tang. 2003. Hydrogen peroxide and jasmonic acid mediate oligogalacturonic acid-induced saponin accumulation in suspension-cultured cells of panax ginseng. Physiol Plant 118: 414–421.Google Scholar
  71. Hyun, Y., S. Choi, H.J. Hwang, J. Yu, S.J. Nam, J. Ko, J.Y. Park, Y.S. Seo, E.Y. Kim, S.B. Ryu, W.T. Kim, Y.H. Lee, H. Kang, and I. Lee. 2008. Cooperation and functional diversification of two closely related galactolipase genes for jasmonate biosynthesis. Dev Cell 14: 183–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ishiguro, S., A. Kawai-Oda, J. Ueda, I. Nishida, and K. Okada. 2001. The DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCIENCE gene encodes a novel phospholipase A1 catalyzing the initial step of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, which synchronizes pollen maturation, anther dehiscence, and flower opening in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 13: 2191–2209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jonak, C., L. Okresz, L. Bogre, and H. Hirt. 2002. Complexity, cross talk and integration of plant MAP kinase signalling. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5: 415–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Journot-Catalino, N., I.E. Somssich, D. Roby, and T. Kroj. 2006. The transcription factors WRKY11 and WRKY17 act as negative regulators of basal resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 18: 3289–3302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Keinanen, M., N.J. Oldham, and I.T. Baldwin. 2001. Rapid HPLC screening of jasmonate-induced increases in tobacco alkaloids, phenolics, and diterpene glycosides in nicotiana attenuata. J Agric Food Chem 49: 3553–3558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kessler, A., and I.T. Baldwin. 2002. Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 299–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kessler, A., R. Halitschke, and I.T. Baldwin. 2004. Silencing the jasmonate cascade: induced plant defenses and insect populations. Science 305: 665–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kloek, A.P., M.L. Verbsky, S.B. Sharma, J.E. Schoelz, J. Vogel, D.F. Klessig, and B.N. Kunkel. 2001. Resistance to pseudomonas syringae conferred by an Arabidopsis thaliana coronatine-insensitive (coi1) mutation occurs through two distinct mechanisms. Plant J 26: 509–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Koo, A.J., H.S. Chung, Y. Kobayashi, and G.A. Howe. 2006. Identification of a peroxisomal acyl-activating enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem 281: 33511–33520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Koornneef, A., and C.M. Pieterse. 2008. Cross talk in defense signaling. Plant Physiol 146: 839–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kunkel, B.N., and D.M. Brooks. 2002. Cross talk between signaling pathways in pathogen defense. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5: 325–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee, G.I., and G.A. Howe. 2003. The tomato mutant spr1 is defective in systemin perception and the production of a systemic wound signal for defense gene expression. Plant J 33: 567–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee, D., D.H. Polisensky, and J. Braam. 2005. Genome-wide identification of touch- and darkness-regulated Arabidopsis genes: a focus on calmodulin-like and XTH genes. New Phytol 165: 429–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Li, L., C. Li, G.I. Lee, and G.A. Howe. 2002. Distinct roles for jasmonate synthesis and action in the systemic wound response of tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 6416–6421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Li, L., Y. Zhao, B.C. McCaig, B.A. Wingerd, J. Wang, M.E. Whalon, E. Pichersky, and G.A. Howe. 2004. The tomato homolog of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE1 is required for the maternal control of seed maturation, jasmonate-signaled defense responses, and glandular trichome development. Plant Cell 16: 126–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Li, C., A.L. Schilmiller, G. Liu, G.I. Lee, S. Jayanty, C. Sageman, J. Vrebalov, J.J. Giovannoni, K. Yagi, Y. Kobayashi, and G.A. Howe. 2005. Role of beta-oxidation in jasmonate biosynthesis and systemic wound signaling in tomato. Plant Cell 17: 971–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Liechti, R., and E.E. Farmer. 2002. The jasmonate pathway. Science 296: 1649–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lison, P., I. Rodrigo, and V. Conejero. 2006. A novel function for the cathepsin D inhibitor in tomato. Plant Physiol 142: 1329–1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Liu, F., W. Ni, M.E. Griffith, Z. Huang, C. Chang, W. Peng, H. Ma, and D. Xie. 2004. The ASK1 and ASK2 genes are essential for Arabidopsis early development. Plant Cell 16: 5–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lorenzo, O., R. Piqueras, J.J. Sanchez-Serrano, and R. Solano. 2003. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 integrates signals from ethylene and jasmonate pathways in plant defense. Plant Cell 15: 165–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lorenzo, O., J.M. Chico, J.J. Sanchez-Serrano, and R. Solano. 2004. JASMONATE-INSENSITIVE1 encodes a MYC transcription factor essential to discriminate between different jasmonate-regulated defense responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 16: 1938–1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Major, I.T., and C.P. Constabel. 2006. Molecular analysis of poplar defense against herbivory: comparison of wound- and insect elicitor-induced gene expression. New Phytol 172: 617–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mao, P., M. Duan, C. Wei, and Y. Li. 2007. WRKY62 Transcription factor acts downstream of cytosolic NPR1 and negatively regulates jasmonate-responsive gene expression. Plant Cell Physiol 48: 833–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McConn, M., and J. Browse. 1996. The critical requirement for linolenic acid in pollen development, not photosynthesis, in an Arabidopsis mutant. Plant Cell 8: 403–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McCormack, E., and J. Braam. 2003. Calmodulins and related potential calcium sensors of Arabidopsis. New Phytol 159: 585–598.Google Scholar
  96. Mewis, I., H.M. Appel, A. Hom, R. Raina, and J.C. Schultz. 2005. Major signaling pathways modulate Arabidopsis glucosinolate accumulation and response to both phloem-feeding and chewing insects. Plant Physiol 138: 1149–1162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mou, Z., W. Fan, and X. Dong. 2003. Inducers of plant systemic acquired resistance regulate NPR1 function through redox changes. Cell 113: 935–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Niki, T., I. Mitsuhara, S. Seo, N. Ohtsubo, and Y. Ohashi. 1998. Antagonistic effect of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in wounded mature tobacco leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 39: 500–507.Google Scholar
  99. O’Donnell, P.J., M.R. Truesdale, C.M. Calvert, A. Dorans, M.R. Roberts, and D.J. Bowles. 1998. A novel tomato gene that rapidly responds to wound- and pathogen-related signals. Plant J 14: 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Parbery, D.G. 1996. Trophism and the ecology of fungi associated with plants. Biol Rev 71: 473–527.Google Scholar
  101. Park, J.H., R. Halitschke, H.B. Kim, I.T. Baldwin, K.A. Feldmann, and R. Feyereisen. 2002. A knock-out mutation in allene oxide synthase results in male sterility and defective wound signal transduction in Arabidopsis due to a block in jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Plant J 31: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Parthier, B. 1990. Jasmonates: hormonal regulators or stress factors in leaf senescence? J Plant Growth Regul 9: 57–63.Google Scholar
  103. Paschold, A., R. Halitschke, and I.T. Baldwin. 2007. Co(i)-ordinating defenses: NaCOI1 Mediates herbivore-induced resistance in nicotiana attenuata and reveals the role of herbivore movement in avoiding defenses. Plant J 51: 79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pauwels, L., K. Morreel, E. De Witte, F. Lammertyn, M. Van Montagu, W. Boerjan, D. Inze, and A. Goossens. 2008. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 1380–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Penninckx, I.A., K. Eggermont, F.R. Terras, B.P. Thomma, G.W. De Samblanx, A. Buchala, J.P. Metraux, J.M. Manners, and W.F. Broekaert. 1996. Pathogen-induced systemic activation of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis follows a salicylic acid-independent pathway. Plant Cell 8: 2309–2323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Penninckx, I.A., B.P. Thomma, A. Buchala, J.P. Metraux, and W.F. Broekaert. 1998. Concomitant activation of jasmonate and ethylene response pathways is required for induction of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10: 2103–2113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Petersen, M., P. Brodersen, H. Naested, E. Andreasson, U. Lindhart, B. Johansen, H.B. Nielsen, M. Lacy, M.J. Austin, J.E. Parker, S.B. Sharma, D.F. Klessig, R. Martienssen, O. Mattsson, A.B. Jensen, and J. Mundy. 2000. Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance. Cell 103: 1111–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pieterse, C.M., and L.C. Van Loon. 2004. NPR1: the spider in the web of induced resistance signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7: 456–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pieterse, C.M., S.C. van Wees, J.A. van Pelt, M. Knoester, R. Laan, H. Gerrits, P.J. Weisbeek, and L.C. van Loon. 1998. A novel signaling pathway controlling induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10: 1571–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Purugganan, M.M., J. Braam, and S.C. Fry. 1997. The Arabidopsis TCH4 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Substrate specificity, pH optimum, and cold tolerance. Plant Physiol 115: 181–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ralph, S.G., H. Yueh, M. Friedmann, D. Aeschliman, J.A. Zeznik, C.C. Nelson, Y.S. Butterfield, R. Kirkpatrick, J. Liu, S.J. Jones, M.A. Marra, C.J. Douglas, K. Ritland, and J. Bohlmann. 2006. Conifer defence against insects: microarray gene expression profiling of Sitka spruce (picea sitchensis) induced by mechanical wounding or feeding by spruce budworms (choristoneura occidentalis) or white pine weevils (pissodes strobi) reveals large-scale changes of the host transcriptome. Plant Cell Environ 29: 1545–1570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ren, C., J. Pan, W. Peng, P. Genschik, L. Hobbie, H. Hellmann, M. Estelle, B. Gao, J. Peng, C. Sun, and D. Xie. 2005. Point mutations in Arabidopsis Cullin1 reveal its essential role in jasmonate response. Plant J 42: 514–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Reymond, P., H. Weber, M. Damond, and E.E. Farmer. 2000. Differential gene expression in response to mechanical wounding and insect feeding in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12: 707–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Reymond, P., N. Bodenhausen, R.M. Van Poecke, V. Krishnamurthy, M. Dicke, and E.E. Farmer. 2004. A conserved transcript pattern in response to a specialist and a generalist herbivore. Plant Cell 16: 3132–3147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Richmond, T.A., and A.B. Bleecker. 1999. A defect in beta-oxidation causes abnormal inflorescence development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 11: 1911–1924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rojo, E., J. Leon, and J.J. Sanchez-Serrano. 1999. Cross-talk between wound signalling pathways determines local versus systemic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 20: 135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rojo, E., R. Solano, and J.J. Sanchez-Serrano. 2003. Interactions between signaling compounds involved in plant defense. J Plant Growth Regul 22: 82–98.Google Scholar
  118. Rowe, H.C., J.W. Walley, J. Corwin, E.K. Chan, K. Dehesh, and D.J. Kliebenstein. 2010. Deficiencies in jasmonate-mediated plant defense reveal quantitative variation in botrytis cinerea pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog 6: e1000861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ryan, C.A. 1990. Protease inhibitors in plants: genes for improving defenses against insects and pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28: 425–449.Google Scholar
  120. Sanchez-Serrano, J., R. Schmidt, J. Schell, and L. Willmitzer. 1986. Nucleotide sequence of proteinase inhibitor II encoding cDNA of potato (solanum fuberosum) and its mode of expression. MoI Gen Genet 203: 15–20.Google Scholar
  121. Sanders, P.M., P.Y. Lee, C. Biesgen, J.D. Boone, T.P. Beals, E.W. Weiler, and R.B. Goldberg. 2000. The Arabidopsis DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 gene encodes an enzyme in the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. Plant Cell 12: 1041–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schaller, F., C. Biesgen, C. Mussig, T. Altmann, and E.W. Weiler. 2000. 12-Oxophytodienoate reductase 3 (OPR3) is the isoenzyme involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. Planta 210: 979–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schilmiller, A.L., A.J. Koo, and G.A. Howe. 2007. Functional diversification of acyl-coenzyme a oxidases in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action. Plant Physiol 143: 812–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmelz, E.A., M.J. Carroll, S. LeClere, S.M. Phipps, J. Meredith, P.S. Chourey, H.T. Alborn, and P.E. Teal. 2006. Fragments of ATP synthase mediate plant perception of insect attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 8894–8899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Seo, J.S., J. Joo, M.J. Kim, Y.K. Kim, B.H. Nahm, S.I. Song, J.J. Cheong, J.S. Lee, J.K. Kim, and Y.D. Choi. 2011. OsbHLH148, a basic helix-loop-helix protein, interacts with OsJAZ proteins in a jasmonate signaling pathway leading to drought tolerance in rice. Plant J 65: 907–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sheard, L.B., X. Tan, H. Mao, J. Withers, G. Ben-Nissan, T.R. Hinds, Y. Kobayashi, F.F. Hsu, M. Sharon, J. Browse, S.Y. He, J. Rizo, G.A. Howe, and N. Zheng. 2010. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor. Nature 468: 400–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Shoji, T., Y. Yamada, and T. Hashimoto. 2000. Jasmonate induction of putrescine N-methyltransferase genes in the root of nicotiana sylvestris. Plant Cell Physiol 41: 831–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sistrunk, M.L., D.M. Antosiewicz, M.M. Purugganan, and J. Braam. 1994. Arabidopsis TCH3 encodes a novel Ca2+ binding protein and shows environmentally induced and tissue-specific regulation. Plant Cell 6: 1553–1565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Song, S., T. Qi, H. Huang, Q. Ren, D. Wu, C. Chang, W. Peng, Y. Liu, J. Peng, and D. Xie. 2011. The jasmonate-ZIM domain proteins interact with the R2R3-MYB transcription factors MYB21 and MYB24 to affect jasmonate-regulated stamen development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23: 1000–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Spoel, S.H., A. Koornneef, S.M. Claessens, J.P. Korzelius, J.A. Van Pelt, M.J. Mueller, A.J. Buchala, J.P. Metraux, R. Brown, K. Kazan, L.C. Van Loon, X. Dong, and C.M. Pieterse. 2003. NPR1 Modulates cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways through a novel function in the cytosol. Plant Cell 15: 760–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Staswick, P.E., and I. Tiryaki. 2004. The oxylipin signal jasmonic acid is activated by an enzyme that conjugates it to isoleucine in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 16: 2117–2127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Staswick, P.E., W. Su, and S.H. Howell. 1992. Methyl jasmonate inhibition of root growth and induction of a leaf protein are decreased in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 6837–6840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Staswick, P.E., G.Y. Yuen, and C.C. Lehman. 1998. Jasmonate signaling mutants of Arabidopsis are susceptible to the soil fungus pythium irregulare. Plant J 15: 747–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Staswick, P.E., I. Tiryaki, and M.L. Rowe. 2002. Jasmonate response locus JAR1 and several related Arabidopsis genes encode enzymes of the firefly luciferase superfamily that show activity on jasmonic, salicylic, and indole-3-acetic acids in an assay for adenylation. Plant Cell 14: 1405–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Stelmach, B.A., A. Muller, P. Hennig, D. Laudert, L. Andert, and E.W. Weiler. 1998. Quantitation of the octadecanoid 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a signalling compound in plant mechanotransduction. Phytochemistry 47: 539–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Stintzi, A., and J. Browse. 2000. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 10625–10630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Stintzi, A., H. Weber, P. Reymond, J. Browse, and E.E. Farmer. 2001. Plant defense in the absence of jasmonic acid: the role of cyclopentenones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 12837–12842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Strassner, J., F. Schaller, U.B. Frick, G.A. Howe, E.W. Weiler, N. Amrhein, P. Macheroux, and A. Schaller. 2002. Characterization and cDNA-microarray expression analysis of 12-oxophytodienoate reductases reveals differential roles for octadecanoid biosynthesis in the local versus the systemic wound response. Plant J 32: 585–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Suza, W.P., and P.E. Staswick. 2008. The role of JAR1 in jasmonoyl-L: isoleucine production during Arabidopsis wound response. Planta 227: 1221–1232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Swiatek, A., M. Lenjou, D. Van Bockstaele, D. Inze, and H. Van Onckelen. 2002. Differential effect of jasmonic acid and abscisic acid on cell cycle progression in tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Physiol 128: 201–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Thaler, J.S., A.L. Fidantsef, and R.M. Bostock. 2002. Antagonism between jasmonate- and salicylate-mediated induced plant resistance: effects of concentration and timing of elicitation on defense-related proteins, herbivore, and pathogen performance in tomato. J Chem Ecol 28: 1131–1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Thines, B., L. Katsir, M. Melotto, Y. Niu, A. Mandaokar, G. Liu, K. Nomura, S.Y. He, G.A. Howe, and J. Browse. 2007. JAZ repressor proteins are targets of the SCF(COI1) complex during jasmonate signalling. Nature 448: 661–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Thomma, B.P., K. Eggermont, I.A. Penninckx, B. Mauch-Mani, R. Vogelsang, B.P. Cammue, and W.F. Broekaert. 1998. Separate jasmonate-dependent and salicylate-dependent defense-response pathways in Arabidopsis are essential for resistance to distinct microbial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 15107–15111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Thomma, B.P., I.A. Penninckx, W.F. Broekaert, and B.P. Cammue. 2001. The complexity of disease signaling in Arabidopsis. Curr Opin Immunol 13: 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Thorpe, M.R., A.P. Ferrieri, M.M. Herth, and R.A. Ferrieri. 2007. 11C-imaging: methyl jasmonate moves in both phloem and xylem, promotes transport of jasmonate, and of photoassimilate even after proton transport is decoupled. Planta 226: 541–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ton, J., M. D'Alessandro, V. Jourdie, G. Jakab, D. Karlen, M. Held, B. Mauch-Mani, and T.C. Turlings. 2007. Priming by airborne signals boosts direct and indirect resistance in maize. Plant J 49: 16–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Traw, M.B., J. Kim, S. Enright, D.F. Cipollini, and J. Bergelson. 2003. Negative cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-mediated pathways in the wassilewskija ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Ecol 12: 1125–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Tsuji, J., E.P. Jackson, D.A. Gage, R. Hammerschmidt, and S.C. Somerville. 1992. Phytoalexin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana during the hypersensitive reaction to pseudomonas syringae pv syringae. Plant Physiol 98: 1304–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. van Wees, S.C., M. Luijendijk, I. Smoorenburg, L.C. van Loon, and C.M. Pieterse. 1999. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis is not associated with a direct effect on expression of known defense-related genes but stimulates the expression of the jasmonate-inducible gene atvsp upon challenge. Plant Mol Biol 41: 537–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Vick, B.A., and D.C. Zimmerman. 1983. The biosynthesis of jasmonic acid: a physiological role for plant lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 111: 470–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Vijayan, P., J. Shockey, C.A. Levesque, R.J. Cook, and J. Browse. 1998. A role for jasmonate in pathogen defense of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 7209–7214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Vlot, A.C., D.F. Klessig, and S.W. Park. 2008. Systemic acquired resistance: the elusive signal(s). Curr Opin Plant Biol 11: 436–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. von Malek, B., E. van der Graaff, K. Schneitz, and B. Keller. 2002. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant dde2-2 is defective in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene encoding one of the key enzymes of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway. Planta 216: 187–192.Google Scholar
  154. Wang Y, Wang B, Gilroy S, Chehab EW, Braam J (2011) CML24 is involved in root mechanoresponses and cortical microtubule orientation in Arabidopsis. J Plant Growth Regul. doi: 10.1007/s00344-011-9209-9.Google Scholar
  155. Wasternack, C. 2007. Jasmonates: an update on biosynthesis, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. Ann Bot 100: 681–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Weiler, E.W., T. Albrecht, B. Groth, Z.Q. Xia, M. Luxem, H. Lib, L. Andert, and P. Spengler. 1993. Evidence for the involvement of jamonates and their octadecanoid precursors in the tendril coiling response of bryonia dioica. Phytochemistry 32: 591–600.Google Scholar
  157. Xie, D.X., B.F. Feys, S. James, M. Nieto-Rostro, and J.G. Turner. 1998. COI1: an Arabidopsis gene required for jasmonate-regulated defense and fertility. Science 280: 1091–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Xu, Y., P. Chang, D. Liu, M.L. Narasimhan, K.G. Raghothama, P.M. Hasegawa, and R.A. Bressan. 1994. Plant defense genes are synergistically induced by ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Plant Cell 6: 1077–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Xu, W., M.M. Purugganan, D.H. Polisensky, D.M. Antosiewicz, S.C. Fry, and J. Braam. 1995. Arabidopsis TCH4, regulated by hormones and the environment, encodes a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Plant Cell 7: 1555–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Xu, L., F. Liu, E. Lechner, P. Genschik, W.L. Crosby, H. Ma, W. Peng, D. Huang, and D. Xie. 2002. The SCF(COI1) ubiquitin-ligase complexes are required for jasmonate response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 14: 1919–1935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Yan, Y., S. Stolz, A. Chetelat, P. Reymond, M. Pagni, L. Dubugnon, and E.E. Farmer. 2007. A downstream mediator in the growth repression limb of the jasmonate pathway. Plant Cell 19: 2470–2483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Zarate, S.I., L.A. Kempema, and L.L. Walling. 2007. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses. Plant Physiol 143: 866–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Zavala, J.A., A.G. Patankar, K. Gase, D. Hui, and I.T. Baldwin. 2004. Manipulation of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitor production in nicotiana attenuata demonstrates their function as antiherbivore defenses. Plant Physiol 134: 1181–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhang, Z., and I.T. Baldwin. 1997. Transporter of [2-C-14]jasmonic acid from leaves to roots mimics wound-induced changes in endogenous jasmonic acid pools in nicotiana sylvestris. Planta 203: 436–441.Google Scholar
  165. Zhang, Y., and J.G. Turner. 2008. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis. PLoS One 3: e3699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zhang, L., and D. Xing. 2008. Methyl jasmonate induces production of reactive oxygen species and alterations in mitochondrial dynamics that precede photosynthetic dysfunction and subsequent cell death. Plant Cell Physiol 49: 1092–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Ziegler, J., I. Stenzel, B. Hause, H. Maucher, M. Hamberg, R. Grimm, M. Ganal, and C. Wasternack. 2000. Molecular cloning of allene oxide cyclase. The enzyme establishing the stereochemistry of octadecanoids and jasmonates. J Biol Chem 275: 19132–19138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Zolman, B.K., I.D. Silva, and B. Bartel. 2001. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant is defective in an ATP-binding cassette transporter-like protein required for peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Plant Physiol 127: 1266–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemistry and Cell BiologyRice UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations