Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Alleviators for Soil Degradation

  • Metin Turan
  • Ahmet Esitken
  • Fikrettin Sahin


Soil degradation refers to decline in the soil’s productivity through deterioration of its physical, chemical, and biological properties. The most important processes and causes of degradation are water–wind erosion, salinization, alkalinization, acidification, and leaching and soil pollution. The rate of soil degradation is directly related to unsuitable land use. While growers routinely use physical and chemical approaches to manage the soil environment to improve crop yields, the application of microbial products for this purpose is less common. However, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) can prevent the deleterious effects of one or more stressors from the environment. These beneficial microorganisms can be a significant component of management practices to achieve the attainable yield in degraded soil. In such soils, the natural role of stress-tolerant PGPRs in maintaining soil fertility is more important than in conventional agriculture. Besides their role in metal detoxification/removal, salinization, and acidification, rhizobacteria also promote the growth of plants by other mechanisms such as production of growth promoting substances and siderophores. Remediation with PGPRs is called bioremediation in degraded soil and is another emerging low-cost in situ technology (Cohen et al. Int J Green Energy 3:301–312, 2004) employed to remove or alleviate pollutants, salinity, and acidification stress from the degraded land. The efficiency of bioremediation can be enhanced by the judicious and careful application of appropriate heavy metal, salinity, acidity tolerant, and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria including symbiotic nitrogen-fixing organisms. This review presents the results of studies on the recent developments in the utilization of PGPR for direct application in soils degraded with heavy metals, salinity, and acidity under a wide range of agroecological conditions with a view to restore degraded soils and consequently, promote crop productivity in degraded soils across the globe and their significance in bioremediation.


Nitric Oxide Heavy Metal Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Plant Growth Promote Rhizobacteria Degraded Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Department of HorticultureSelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and BioengineeringYeditepe UniversityKayisdagiTurkey

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