Moisture and Heat

  • Ming-ko Woo


Under a cold climate, water exists in solid, liquid and gaseous states at, above and below the surface. Water can undergo change of state on time scales that vary from hours to days and seasons, to multi-year periods. Phase change involves energy and thus energy balance plays a major role in the detention or the release of water to runoff and river flow. Hinzman et al. (1991) stated that the thermal and moisture regimes are closely related to each other and to the characteristics of the active layer and therefore have a marked influence on permafrost dynamics. This chapter reviews briefly the fundamentals of moisture and heat fluxes at the atmospheric boundary layer and below-ground.


Active Layer Latent Heat Flux Ground Temperature Permafrost Region Unfrozen Water 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography and Earth SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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