Endoscopic Parathyroidectomy

  • Paolo Miccoli
  • Gabriele Materazzi


The first endoscopic parathyroidectomy was performed by M. Gagner who operated on a patient presenting with a primary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) caused by a hyperplasia of four glands. The operation, although successful, raised a certain degree of skepticism, in particular among endocrine surgeons, probably because the indication was not adequate for such a procedure. In fact, primary HPTH appears to be an ideal disease to be approached endoscopically for several reasons: (1) the tumor giving rise to the hyperfunction is almost always benign, (2) it rarely exceeds 2–3 cm in size, and (3) there is no need for any surgical reconstruction after the small mass removal.

This stimulated several surgeons to search for other minimally invasive approaches to the parathyroid glands either totally or partly endoscopic.


Parathyroid Gland Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Parathyroid Carcinoma Preoperative Localization Endemic Goiter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryAzienda Ospedale Università di PisaPisaItaly

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