The first endoscopic parathyroidectomy was performed by M. Gagner who operated on a patient presenting with a primary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) caused by a hyperplasia of four glands. The operation, although successful, raised a certain degree of skepticism, in particular among endocrine surgeons, probably because the indication was not adequate for such a procedure. In fact, primary HPTH appears to be an ideal disease to be approached endoscopically for several reasons: (1) the tumor giving rise to the hyperfunction is almost always benign, (2) it rarely exceeds 2–3 cm in size, and (3) there is no need for any surgical reconstruction after the small mass removal.
This stimulated several surgeons to search for other minimally invasive approaches to the parathyroid glands either totally or partly endoscopic.
KeywordsParathyroid Gland Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Parathyroid Carcinoma Preoperative Localization Endemic Goiter
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