Refractive Index Structures in Polymers

  • Patricia J. Scully
  • Alexandra Baum
  • Dun Liu
  • Walter Perrie
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 123)


Refractive index structuring of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation is discussed, including writing conditions defined by wavelength, pulse duration, and associated photochemistry. The aim is to determine optimal conditions for refractive index modification, Δn without doping for photosensitivity. The work presented here forms a generic methodology for other polymers. Nanostructuring using holographic optics and precise control of beam parameters has versatile application for three-dimensional (3D) photonic devices. Self-focusing and filamentation at various depths below the surface of bulk PMMA are discussed together with parallel processing using a spatial light modulator. Applications of refractive index structures in polymers include microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, organic optoelectronic devices, and gratings in polymer optical fibres.


Laser Fluence Diffraction Efficiency Refractive Index Change Spatial Light Modulator Pure PMMA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the Unilever-Manchester Advanced Measurement Partnership, Vista Optics and Rinck Elektronik, Jena.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia J. Scully
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexandra Baum
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dun Liu
    • 3
  • Walter Perrie
    • 3
  1. 1.Photon Science Institute, Alan Turing BuildingThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Centre for Instrumentation and Analytical ScienceThe University of Manchester, CEASManchesterUK
  3. 3.University of Liverpool, Liverpool Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre (LLEC)WirralUK

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