Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design
Residual stresses are a major consequence of many manufacturing processes. In particular, welding residual stresses can affect the processing properties and durability of a component. Especially when welding high strength steels in complex structures, showing high restraint intensities, tensile residual stresses can easily reach the level of the yield strength and cause cracking. Therefore, in this study approaches have been evaluated to control the level and distribution of residual stresses already during the welding process using suitable alloy concepts with reduced phase transformation temperatures. This issue affects primarily the mechanisms between transformation temperature, transformation kinetics and resulting residual stresses. The present work includes discussion and approaches, how these phenomena can be evaluated using an appropriate in-situ monitoring. For that purpose, investigations using high energy synchrotron diffraction have been carried out. Initially, diffraction analyses have been made during simple thermal cycles, focusing on the observation of phase transformation kinetics, i.e. transformation temperatures and temperature dependent phase formation and contents. Furthermore, welding experiments incorporating an external shrinkage restraint show how the stress formation during cooling is influenced by superimposed mechanical and thermal impacts compared to conventional filler material. The results demonstrate that residual stresses can be effectively controlled by means of an adjusted alloy design. Prior to experimental results a review is presented including the mechanisms of stress reduction due to phase transformation during welding. Beside this the progress in designing special alloys for controlling residual stresses is reflected.
KeywordsResidual Stress Reaction Force Welding Residual Stress Retain Austenite Content Restraint Intensity
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