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Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible use in Fuel Cells

  • Eleanor Fourie
  • Gary Pattrick
  • Elma van der Lingen
Chapter

Abstract

Mixed metal nanocatalysts containing platinum and ruthenium on a carbon support were synthesized for possible use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). the synthesis of these catalysts, as described in the literature, is a standard impregnation method of the metal salts, followed by reduction. The reduction can be carried out in a number of ways - either by the addition of a liquid reducing agent or by passing a reducing gas over the filtered and dried catalyst. In this study, PtRu/C catalysts were prepared by reduction with various possible reducing agents, i.e. formaldehyde, formic acid and hydrogen gas at relatively low (923 K) and high (1 173 K) temperatures. The catalyst material was tested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electro chemical methods in order to determine the particle size, alloy formation and catalytic activity of the material. It was found that milder reducing agents led to smaller particle sizes of the metal particles on the carbon support. Reduction conditions were also found to significantly influence the properties of the catalyst. A variety of different metallic, hydrated and oxide species of the precious metal particles are possible. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR) was used to investigate the relative oxidation state of the metal particles.

Keywords

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleanor Fourie
    • 1
  • Gary Pattrick
    • 1
  • Elma van der Lingen
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Materials Division – MintekRandburgSouth Africa

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