The Law Deriving from Monarch, the Monarchy Power Overtopping Law
In Ancient China, the absolute monarchy centered on the king had been established ever since China entered into the class society and the states were founded; therefore, it was of a long standing. It was recorded in the documents of Shang (1600 B.C.–1046 B.C.) and Zhou dynasties (1046 B.C.–771 B.C.) that the words of “Yu Yi Ren” (Tian Zi: the son of Heaven or the emperor) was particularly used by the king to refer to himself and to symbolize his supreme position and absolute privilege. All the national activities, such as punitive expeditions, sacrifices, etc., were named “Wang Shi” (the king’s affairs) to suggest that the king was the state, and that the king and the state were an organic whole. In the oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty on tortoise shells or animal bones, the words like “Wang Ming” (the king’s commands), “Wang Ling” (the king’s orders), and “Wang Hu” (the king’s words) could be found repeatedly, which had indicated that the national affairs were conducted according to the orders of king who not only had the supreme administrative and military power, but the supreme legislative and judicial power.