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Spinal Retractors

  • Luca Papavero
Chapter

Abstract

Open surgical retractors provide continuous, unobstructed access to surgical sites. They unavoidably push the retr­acted tissue increasing intra-tissue pressure and reducing perfusion.

Keywords

Pedicle Screw Intramuscular Pressure Pedicle Screw Insertion Tubular Retractor Balloon Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic for Spine Surgery, Schön Clinic HamburgHamburgGermany

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