Spinal Retractors

  • Luca Papavero


Open surgical retractors provide continuous, unobstructed access to surgical sites. They unavoidably push the retr­acted tissue increasing intra-tissue pressure and reducing perfusion.


Pedicle Screw Intramuscular Pressure Pedicle Screw Insertion Tubular Retractor Balloon Group 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic for Spine Surgery, Schön Clinic HamburgHamburgGermany

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