Bootstrapping Trust of Web Services through Behavior Observation

  • Hamdi Yahyaoui
  • Sami Zhioua
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6757)


We present in this paper a new Web services trust bootstrapping technique, which consists in observing several interactions of a user with a Web service. The obtained observations sequence is modeled as a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and matched against pre-defined trust patterns in order to assess the behavior of the Web service under observation. The pre-defined trust patterns are specifications of possible behaviors of Web services. Based on the matching result, an initial trust value is assigned to the observed Web service. Our experimental results show that our technique has good precision and recall rates together with a fair distribution of trust values.


Trust Web services Bootstrapping Hidden Markov Model 


  1. 1.
    Baum, L.E., Egon, J.A.: An Inequality with Applications to Statistical Estimation for Probabilitsic Functions of a Markov Process and to a Model of Ecology. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 360–363 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moukas, A., Zacharia, G., Maes, P.: Collaborative Reputation Mechanisms in Electronic Marketplaces. Decision Support Systems 29(4), 371–388 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grandison, T., Sloman, M.: A survey of trust in internet applications. IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials 4(4), 2–16 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malik, Z.: Reputation-based Trust Framework for Service Oriented Environments. PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (October 2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malik, Z., Bouguettaya, A.: RATEWeb: Reputation Assessment for Trust Establishment among Web services. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB) 18(4), 885–911 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Malik, Z., Bouguettaya, A.: Reputation Bootstrapping for Trust Establishment among Web Services. IEEE Internet Computing 13(1), 40–47 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marti, S., Garcia-Molina, H.: Taxonomy of Trust: Categorizing P2P Reputation Systems. Computer Networks 50(4), 472–484 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maximilien, E., Singh, M.: Reputation and Endorsement for Web Services. SIGecom Exchanges 3(1), 24–31 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maximilien, E., Singh, M.: Toward Autonomic Web Services Trust and Selection. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2004), New York, NY, USA, pp. 212–221 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Murphy, K.: Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Toolbox for Matlab (2005),
  11. 11.
    Rabiner, L.: A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition. Proceedings of the IEEE 77(2), 257–286 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Doshi, P., Paradesi, S., Swaika, S.: Integrating Behavioral Trust in Web Service Compositions. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2009), Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp. 453–460 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    OASIS Web Service Secure Exchange TC. Ws-trust 1.3 (2007),
  14. 14.
    Yahyaoui, H.: Trust Assessment for Web Services. In: IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2010), Miami, FL, USA, pp. 315–320 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamdi Yahyaoui
    • 1
  • Sami Zhioua
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentKuwait UniversitySafatState of Kuwait
  2. 2.Information and Computer Sciences DepartmentKFUPMDhahranKingdom of Saudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations