Early AMD

  • M. DietzelEmail author
  • D. Pauleikhoff
  • F. G. Holz
  • A. C. Bird


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves a variety of phenotypic changes at the posterior pole. These phenotypic fi ndings change dynamically over time, which is not always evident from a single funduscopy. Earlystage disease is characterized by drusen and/or irregular focal hypo- or hyperpigmentations.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Geographic Atrophy Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation Retinal Pigment Epithelial Detachment 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Dietzel
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Pauleikhoff
    • 1
  • F. G. Holz
    • 2
  • A. C. Bird
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySt. Franziskus HospitalMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyMoorfields Eye HospitalLondonUK

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