Integer Ambiguity Resolution with Nonlinear Geometrical Constraints

  • G. Giorgi
  • P. J. G. Teunissen
  • S. Verhagen
  • P. J. Buist
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 137)


Integer ambiguity resolution is the key to obtain very accurate positioning solutions out of the GNSS observations. The Integer Least Squares (ILS) principle, a derivation of the least-squares principle applied to a linear system of equations in which some of the unknowns are subject to an integer constraint, was demonstrated to be optimal among the class of admissible integer estimators. In this contribution it is shown how to embed into the functional model a set of nonlinear geometrical constraints, which arise when considering a set of antennae mounted on a rigid platform. A method to solve for the new model is presented and tested: it is shown that the strengthened underlying model leads to an improved capacity of fixing the correct integer ambiguities.


Constrained methods GNSS Integer ambiguity resolution 



Professor P.J.G. Teunissen is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188): this support is greatly acknowledged.

The research of S. Verhagen is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, applied science division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Giorgi
    • 1
  • P. J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Verhagen
    • 1
  • P. J. Buist
    • 1
  1. 1.Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS)Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Spatial SciencesCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia

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