Role of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Fungi in Heavy Metal Detoxification

  • Sema Camci Cetin
  • Ayten KaracaEmail author
  • Ridvan Kizilkaya
  • Oguz Can Turgay
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 30)


Heavy metals are found in nature and are the main component of a variety of enzymes, transcription factors, and other proteins. Excessive level of heavy metal is considered as a pollutant agent. Soil-heavy metals cannot be degraded biologically; they can only be transformed to organic complexes. Remediation techniques have high costs and low efficiency, whereas an alternative technique, phytoremediation has low cost and is environmentally friendly. To stimulate phytoremediation, fast-growing plants with high metal uptake and rapid and high biomass are required. Alternatively, soil microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are used in heavy metal detoxification. This chapter reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of fungi and rhizobacteria in heavy metal detoxification.


Heavy Metal Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plant Growth Promote Rhizobacteria Brassica Juncea 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Jennifer Tvergyak, The Soil Microbial Ecology Group, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University, US for her comments on the manuscript.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sema Camci Cetin
    • 1
  • Ayten Karaca
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ridvan Kizilkaya
    • 3
  • Oguz Can Turgay
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of ForestyCankiri Karatekin UniversityCankiriTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey

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