Advertisement

Frühe AMD

  • Martha Dietzel
  • Daniel Pauleikhoff
  • F. G. Holz
  • A. C. Bird

Zusammenfassung

Die altersabhängige Makuladegeneration kann sich in sehr unterschiedlichen Formen am hinteren Augenpol manifestieren. Dabei unterliegen die verschiedenen Befunde Veränderungen mit der Zeit, d. h. es handelt sich um dynamische Prozesse, was bei der Momentaufnahme einer Funduskopie nicht immer evident ist. Zu unterscheiden ist ein Frühstadium der Erkrankung, das durch Drusen und/oder irreguläre fokale Hyper- oder Hypopigmentierungen gekennzeichnet ist, und ein Spätstadium, das choroidale Neovaskularisationen (CNV), Abhebungen des retinalen Pigmentepithels (RPE), Risse des RPE oder eine geographische Atrophie aufweisen kann.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. [1]
    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2001) A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 119:1417–1436Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Arnold JJ, Sarks SH, Killingsworth MC, Sarks JP (1995) Reticular pseudodrusen: a risk factor in age-related maculopathy. Retina 15:183–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Barondes M, Pauleikhoff D, Chisholm IC, Minessian D, Bird AC (1986) Bilaterality of drusen. Br J Ophthalmol 74:180–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Bird AC, Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Chisholm IH, Coscas G, Davis MD, de Jong PT, Klaver CC, Klein BE, Klein R, et al. (1995) An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Surv Ophthalmol 39:367–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Brown B, Lovie-Kitchin J (1987) Contrast-sensitivity in central and paracentral retina in age-related macular maculopathy. Clin Exper Optom 7:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Curcio CA, Millican CL (1999) Basal linear deposit and large drusen are specific for early age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 117:329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Farwick A, Wellmann J, Stoll M, Pauleikhoff D, Hense HW (2010) Susceptibility genes and progression in age-related maculopathy: a study of single eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:731–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Gass JD, Jallow S, Davis B (1985) Adult vitelliform macular detachment occurring in patients with basal laminar drusen. Am J Ophthalm 99:445–459Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Holz FG, Wolfensberger TJ, Piguet B, Gross-Jendroska B, Wells JA, Minassian DC, Chisholm IH, Bird AC (1994) Bilateral macular drusen in age-related macular degeneration: prognosis and risk factors. Ophthalmology 101:1522–1528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Holz FG, Gross-Jendroska M, Eckstein A, Hog CR, Arden GB, Bird AC (1995) Colour contrast sensitivity in patients with age-related Bruch’s membrane changes. German J Ophthalmol 4:336–341Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Katta S, Kaur I, Chakrabarti S (2009) The molecular genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration: an overview. J Genet 88:425–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Klein R, Klein BE, Tomany SC, Meuer SM, Huang GH (2002) Tenyear incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 109:1767–1779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lommatzsch A, Hermans P, Müller KD, Bornfeld N, Bird AC, Pauleikhoff D (2008) Are low inflammatory reactions involved in exudative age-related macular degeneration? Morphological and immunhistochemical analysis of AMD associated with basal deposits. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:803–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Pauleikhoff D, Barondes MJ, Minessian D, Chisholm IH, Bird AC (1990a) Drusen as risk factors in age-related macular disease. Am J Ophthalmol 109:38–43Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Pauleikhoff D, Chen JC, Chisholm IH, Bird AC (1990b) Choroidal perfusion abnormality with age-related Bruch‘s membrane change. Am J Opthalmol 109:211–217Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Pauleikhoff D, Zuels S, Sheraidah G, Bird AC (1992) Correlation between biochemical composition and fluorescein binding of deposits in Bruch’s membrane. Ophthalmology 99:1548–1553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Piguet B, Palmvang IB, Chisholm IH, Minassian D, Bird AC (1992) Evolution of age-related macular degeneration with choroidal perfusion abnormality. Am J Ophthalmol 113:657–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Rivera A, Fisher SA, Fritsche LG, Keilhauer CN, Lichtner P, Meitinger T, Weber BH (2005) Hypothetical LOC387715 is a second major susceptibility gene for age-related macular degeneration, contributing independently of complement factor H to disease risk. Hum Mol Genet 14:3227–3236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Rudolf M, Malek G, Messinger JD, Clark ME, Wang L, Curcio CA (2008) Sub-retinal drusenoid deposits in human retina: organization and composition. Exp Eye Res 87:402–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Russell SR, Mullins RF, Schneider BL, Hageman GS (2000) Location, substructure, and composition of basal laminar drusen compared with drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 129:205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Sarks SH, Van Driel D, Maxwell L, Killingsworth M (1980) Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularization. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 100:414–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Alten F, Steinberg JS, Jaffe GJ, Fleckenstein M, Mukesh BN, Hohman TC, Holz FG for the GAP-Study Group (2011) Reticular drusen associated with geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, online publiziert: 15.04.2011Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Steinberg JS, Fleckenstein M, Visvalingam S, Brinkmann CK, Holz FG (2010) Combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging of reticular drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 117:1169–1176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Scilley K, Jackson GR, Cideciyan AV, Maguire MG, Jacobson SG, Owsley C (2002) Early age-related maculopathy and self-reported visual difficulty in daily life. Ophthalmology 109:1235–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Seddon JM, Francis PJ, George S, Schultz DW, Rosner B, Klein ML (2007) Association of CFH Y402H and LOC387715 A69S with progression of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 297:1793–1800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Spaide RF, Curcio CA (2010) Drusen characterization with multimodal imaging. Retina 30: 1441–1454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Steinmetz RL, Haimovici R, Jubb C, Fitzke FW, Bird AC (1993) Symptomatic abnormalities of dark adaptation in patients with agerelated Bruch’s membrane change. Br J Ophthalmol 77:549–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Van Leeuwen R, Klaver CC, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, de Jong PT (2003) The risk and natural course of age-related maculopathy: follow-up at 6 1/2 years in the Rotterdam study. Arch Ophthalmol 121:519–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Wang L, Clark ME, Crossman DK, Kojima K, Messinger JD, Mobley JA, Curcio CA (2010) Abundant lipid and protein components of drusen. PLoS ONE 5 (4):e10329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Wasmuth S, Lueck K, Baehler H, Lommatzsch A, Pauleikhoff D (2009) Increased vitronectin production by complement-stimulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5304–5309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Zweifel SA, Spaide RF, Curcio CA, Malek G, Imamura Y (2010) Reticular pseudodrusen are subretinal drusenoid deposits. Ophthalmology 117:303–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Zweifel SA, Imamura Y, Spaide TC, Fujiwara T, Spaide RF (2010) Prevalence and significance of subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen) in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 117:1775–1781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha Dietzel
    • 1
  • Daniel Pauleikhoff
    • 1
  • F. G. Holz
    • 2
  • A. C. Bird
    • 3
  1. 1.AugenabteilungSt. Franziskus HospitalMünster
  2. 2.Klinik für AugenheilkundeUniversitätsklinikum BonnBonn
  3. 3.Institute of OphthalmologyMoorfields Eye HospitalLondonGroßbritannien

Personalised recommendations