Exposure, Uptake, and Barriers

  • Armelle Baeza-SquibanEmail author
  • Sophie Lanone


The nanotechnologies market is booming, e.g., in the food industry (powder additives, etc.) and in medical applications (drug delivery, prosthetics, diagnostic imaging, etc.), but also in other industrial sectors, such as sports, construction, cosmetics, and so on. In this context, with an exponential increase in the number of current and future applications, it is particularly important to evaluate the problem of unintentional (i.e., non-medical) exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (so excluding nanoparticles found naturally in the environment). In this chapter, we begin by discussing the various parameters that must be taken into account in any serious assessment of exposure to man-made nanoparticles. We then list the potential routes by which nanoparticles might enter into the organism, and outline the mechanisms whereby they could get past the different biological barriers. Finally, we describe the biodistribution of nanoparticles in the organism and the way they are eliminated.


Gold Nanoparticles Olfactory Bulb Stratum Corneum Intratracheal Instillation Clearance Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire des réponses moléculaires et cellulaires aux xénobiotiques (RMCX) Unité de biologie fonctionnelle et adaptative (BFA), EAC CNRS 4413 Case 7073Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7Paris Cedex 13France
  2. 2.Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U955)Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Albert Chenevier–Henri MondorCréteil CedexFrance

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