Adipose Stem Cell Engineering: Characterization and Current Application in Otolaryngology

  • Suzanne N. King
  • Susan ThibeaultEmail author


The clinical potential for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is abundant and their capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages demonstrates the impact they can provide to regenerative therapies in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery. Adipose tissues have sufficient amounts of ASCs that can be derived from a single sample and harvested with minimally invasive procedures. Furthermore, ASCs can prevent the incidence of graft versus host disease by suppressing the immune response. Tissue engineering strategies can combine cell delivery with appropriate scaffold biomaterials that can mimic the unique physiological and biomechanical properties of ear, nose and throat. This chapter presents a review of the literature regarding the use of ASCs in otolaryngology head and neck surgery related research, illustrating their current and potential use in the field.


Hyaluronic Acid Hepatocyte Growth Factor Vocal Fold Stromal Vascular Fraction Multilineage Differentiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1.  1.
    Aggarwal S, Pittenger MF (2005) Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses. Blood 105:1815–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2.  1.
    BioVex (2010) Available on Website:
  3.  3.
    Bochev I, Elmadjian G, Kyurkchiev D et al (2008) Mesen­chymal stem cells from human bone marrow or adipose tissue differently modulate mitogen-stimulated B-cell immunoglobulin production in vitro. Cell Biol Int 32(4):384–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4.  2.
    Dicker A, Le Blanc K, Aström G et al (2005) Functional studies of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult human adipose tissue. Exp Cell Res 308(2):283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5.  3.
    Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Mueller I et al (2006) Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy 8(4):315–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6.  4.
    Gomillion CT, Burg KJ (2006) Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering. Biomaterials 27(36):6052–6063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7.  5.
    Gronthos S, Franklin DM, Leddy HA et al (2001) Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. J Cell Physiol 189(1):54–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8.  6.
    Hanson SE, Kim J, Johnson BH et al (2010) Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human vocal fold fibroblasts. Laryngoscope 120(3):546–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9.  7.
    Hanson SE, Thibeault SL, Hematti P (2010) Clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells in laryngotracheal reconstruction. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 5(3):268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10.  8.
    Helder MN, Knippenberg M, Klein-Nulend J et al (2007) Stem cells from adipose tissue allow challenging new concepts for regenerative medicine. Tissue Eng 13(8):1799–1808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11.  9.
    Hennig T, Lorenz H, Thiel A et al (2007) Reduced chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue derived stromal cells correlates with an altered TGFβ receptor and BMP profile and is overcome by BMP-6. J Cell Physiol 211:682–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    Hu YL, Fu YH, Tabata Y et al (2010) Mesenchymal stem cells: a promising targeted-delivery vehicle in cancer gene therapy. J Control Release 147:154–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Jiang T, Liu W, Lv X, Sun H et al (2010) Potent in vitro chondrogenesis of CD105 enriched human adipose-derived stem cells. Biomaterials 31(13):3564–3571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang XX, Zhang Y, Liu B et al (2005) Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Blood 105(10):4120–4126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12.
    Jurgens WJ, Oedayrajsingh-Varma MJ, Helder MN (2008) Effect of tissue-harvesting site on yield of stem cells derived from adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Cell Tissue Res 332(3):415–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 13.
    Katz AJ, Tholpady A, Tholpady SS et al (2005) Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells. Stem Cells 23:412–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 14.
    Kishimoto Y, Hirano S, Suehiro A et al (2009) Effect of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor on vocal fold fibroblasts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 118(8):606–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 15.
    Kocaoemer A, Kern S, Klüter H et al (2007) Human AB serum and thrombin-activated platelet-rich plasma are suitable alternatives to fetal calf serum for the expansion of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. Stem Cells 25:1270–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 16.
    Kumai Y, Kobler JB, Park H et al (2009) Crosstalk between adipose-derived stem/stromal cells and vocal fold fibroblasts in vitro. Laryngoscope 119(4):799–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 17.
    Kumai Y, Kobler JB, Park H et al (2010) Modulation of vocal fold scar fibroblasts by adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Laryngoscope 120(2):330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 18.
    Levi B, James AW, Wan DC et al (2010) Regulation of human adipose-derived stromal cell osteogenic differentiation by insulin-like growth factor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor-alpha. Plast Reconstr 26(1):41–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 19.
    Liu G, Zhou H, Li Y et al (2008) Evaluation of the viability and osteogenic differentiation of cryopreserved human adipose-derived stem cells. Cryobiology 57(1):18–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 20.
    Long JL, Neubauer J, Zhang Z et al (2010) Functional testing of a tissue-engineered vocal fold cover replacement. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 142:438–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 21.
    Long JL, Zuk P, Berke GS et al (2010) Epithelial differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells for laryngeal tissue engineering. Laryngoscope 120:125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 22.
    McIntosh K, Zvonic S, Garrett S et al (2006) The immunogenicity of human adipose-derived cells: temporal changes in vitro. Stem Cells 24(5):1246–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 23.
    Mesimäki K, Lindroos B, Törnwall J et al (2009) Novel maxillary reconstruction with ectopic bone formation by GMP adipose stem cells. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 38:201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 24.
    Mikus JL, Koufman JA, Kilpatrik SE (1995) Fate of liposuctioned and purified autologous fat injection in the canine vocal fold. Laryngoscope 105:17–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 25.
    Moseley TA, Zhu M, Hedrick MH (2006) Adipose-derived stem and progenitor cells as fillers in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 118(3 Suppl):121S–128SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 26.
    Oedayrajsingh-Varma MJ, van Ham SM, Knippenberg M et al (2006) Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure. Cytotherapy 8(2):166–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 27.
    Omori K, Nakamura T, Kanemaru S et al (2005) Regenerative medicine of the trachea: the first human case. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 114(6):429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 28.
    Park H, Karajanagi S, Wolak K et al (2010) Three-dimensional hydrogel model using adipose-derived stem cells for vocal fold augmentation. Tissue Eng A 16(2):535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    Peroni D, Scambi I, Pasini A et al (2008) Stem molecular signature of adipose-derived stromal cells. Exp Cell Res 314(3):603–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 30.
    Puissant B, Barreau C, Bourin P et al (2005) Immuno­modulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Br J Hematol 129:118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    Regan MC, Kirk SJ, Wasserkrug HL et al (1991) The wound environment as a regulator of fibroblast phenotype. J Surg Res 50(5):442–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    RoyChowdhury P, Klemuk S, Titze I et al (2009) Effects of fabrication parameters on viscoelastic shear modulus of 2,3-dialdehydecellulose membranes—potential scaffolds for vocal fold lamina propria tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 88A:680–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 33.
    Rubio D, Garcia-Castro J, Martin MC et al (2005) Spontaneous human adult stem cell transformation. Cancer Res 65:3035–3039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 34.
    Scheller EL, Krebsbach PH (2009) Gene therapy: design and prospects for craniofacial regeneration. J Dent Res 88(7):585–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Schreml S, Babilas P, Fruth S et al (2009) Harvesting human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: resection versus liposuction. Cytotherapy 11(7):947–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Suzuki T, Kobayashi K, Tada Y et al (2008) Regeneration of the trachea using a bioengineered scaffold with adipose-derived stem cells. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 117(6):453–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 37.
    Wagner W, Wein F, Seckinger A et al (2003) Comparative characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. Exp Hematol 33(11):1402–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weinzierl K, Hemprich A, Frerich B (2006) Bone engineering with adipose tissue derived stromal cells. J CranioMaxillofac Surg 34(8):466–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 38.
    Yañez R, Lamana ML, García-Castro J et al (2006) Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have in vivo immunosuppressive properties applicable for the control of the graft-versus-host disease. Stem Cells 24:2582–2591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 39.
    Zuk PA, Zhu M, Ashjian P et al (2002) Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Mol Biol Cell 13:4279–4295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Wisconsin - MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations