Skip to main content

Self-Assessment of Breath Odors

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Breath Odors


The inability of a person to sense his own breath results in a situation called the “bad breath paradox” (Scott Harper, personal communication). According to this paradox, most of the people suffering from breath odors are unaware of their condition, whereas many others that do not have any breath odor worry excessively that they do. For example, in a study of 88 subjects attending a routine health check up, 19 thought that they had bad breath, but this was not confirmed by the odor judge. Conversely, nine had breath odor (as determined by the odor judge) but were not aware of it (Rosenberg et al. 2007). In another study conducted in Japan (Iwakura et al. 1994), 80% of the patients who visited the clinic claimed to be self-aware of their condition, while only 24% had actual malodor.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  • Al-Ansari, J.M., Boodai, H., Al-Sumait, N., Al-Khabbaz, A.K., Al-Shammari, K.F., Salako, N.: Factors associated with self-reported halitosis in Kuwaiti patients. J. Dent. 34(7), 444–449 (2006)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bornstein, M.M., Stocker, B.L., Seemann, R., Burgin, W.B., Lussi, A.: Prevalence of halitosis in young male adults: a study in swiss army recruits comparing self-reported and clinical data. J. Periodontol. 80(1), 24–31 (2009)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eli, I., Baht, R., Koriat, H., Rosenberg, M.: Self-perception of breath odor. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 132(5), 621–626 (2001)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenstein, R.B., Goldberg, S., Marku-Cohen, S., Sterer, N., Rosenberg, M.: Reduction of oral malodor by oxidizing lozenges. J. Periodontol. 68(12), 1176–1181 (1997)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Iwakura, M., Yasuno, Y., Shimura, M., Sakamoto, S.: Clinical characteristics of halitosis: differences in two patient groups with primary and secondary complaints of halitosis. J. Dent. Res. 73(9), 1568–1574 (1994)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nalcaci, R., Baran, I.: Factors associated with self-reported halitosis (SRH) and perceived taste disturbance (PTD) in elderly. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 46(3), 307–316 (2008)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Romano, F., Pigella, E., Guzzi, N., Aimetti, M.: Patients’ self-assessment of oral malodour and its relationship with organoleptic scores and oral conditions. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 8(1), 41–46 (2010)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenberg, M., Kozlovsky, A., Gelernter, I., Cherniak, O., Gabbay, J., Baht, R., Eli, I.: Self-estimation of oral malodor. J. Dent. Res. 74(9), 1577–1582 (1995)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenberg, M., Leib, E.: Experiences of an Israeli malodor clinic. In: Rosenberg, M. (ed.) Bad Breath Research Perspectives, pp. 137–148. Ramot Publishing – Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenberg, M., Kozlovsky, A., Wind, Y., Mindel, E.: Self-assessment of oral malodor 1 year ­following initial consultation. Quintessence Int. 30(5), 324–327 (1999)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenberg, M., Knaan, T., Cohen, D.: Association among bad breath, body mass index, and ­alcohol intake. J. Dent. Res. 86(10), 997–1000 (2007)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Settineri, S., Mento, C., Gugliotta, S.C., Saitta, A., Terranova, A., Trimarchi, G., Mallamace, D.: Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 8, 34 (2010)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spouge, J.D.: Halitosis: a review of its causes and treatment. Dent. Pract. 14, 307–317 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nir Sterer DMD, PhD .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Sterer, N., Rosenberg, M. (2011). Self-Assessment of Breath Odors. In: Breath Odors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-19311-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-19312-5

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics