In contrast to primary and secondary malignant hepatic tumors, benign liver tumors are relatively rare. Cavernous hemangioma is the most common, followed by focal nodular hyperplasia that is often solitary and nodular regenerative hyperplasia that involves the entire organ. Hepatic adenoma is rare but has displayed a marked increase over recent years, most likely due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives. Accurate diagnosis is crucial, since hepatic adenoma carries the risk of rupture and bleeding and, rarely, progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Benign hemangioendothelioma of the liver is a rare entity in infants but could cause life-threatening complications. Angiomyolipoma, like inflammatory pseudotumor sometimes difficult to distinguish from a malignant process, is a very exceptional finding in the liver.
Due to advances in imaging procedures like magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography-scan and ultrasound as well as progress in immunohistochemistry, it is possible to make the appropriate diagnosis in a high percentage of patients without laparotomy and resection.
Once the diagnosis is established and a malignant process is ruled out, most of the benign liver tumors do not need treatment. Exceptions are lesions that cause local problems or pain due to their size, hepatic adenoma because of the risk of rupture and bleeding as well as the low risk of progression to carcinoma, benign hemangioendothelioma of the infant, when it is associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation or heart failure and inflammatory pseudotumor.
KeywordsPortal Vein Thrombosis Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Cavernous Hemangioma Follicular Dendritic Cell Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia
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