Advertisement

Helium MR Imaging

  • Edwin J. R. van Beek
  • Andrew Swift
  • Jim M. Wild
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Conventional proton MR images of the lungs are hampered by the low proton density in the lungs and by artifacts caused by inhomogeneous static fields within the thorax. Therefore, the lung has traditionally been considered a black hole in terms of MR imaging. In recent years, the introduction of hyperpolarized noble gases, such as helium-3 (3-He) and xenon-129 (129-Xe), has shown promise for functional imaging of the pulmonary air spaces. These isotopes have a nuclear spin of 1/2 and are thus sensitive to nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In the presence of a strong magnetic field (B0) these spins in a given atom can exist in one of either two ground states aligned either parallel to or anti-parallel to B0. Conventional proton MRI utilizes the fact that in thermal equilibrium a slightly larger proportion of the spins adopt the lower energy ground state (parallel to B0) and this population can be subsequently excited into the higher state by radio frequency excitation.

Keywords

Magn Reson Image High Resolution Compute Tomography Bronchiolitis Obliterans Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Ventilation Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albert MS, Cates GD, Driehuys B et al. (1994) Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized 129Xe. Nature 370:199–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altes TA, Powers PL, Knight-Scott J et al. (2001a) Hyperpolarized 3-He MR lung ventilation imaging in asthmatics: preliminary findings. J Magn Reson Imaging 13: 378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altes T, Froh DK, Salerno M et al. (2001b) Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MR imaging of lung ventilation changes following airway mucus clearance treatment in cystic fibrosis. Proc ISMRM 9:2003Google Scholar
  4. American Thoracic Society (1962) Chronic bronchitis, asthma and pulmonary emphysems. A statement by the committee on diagnostic standards for non-tuberculous respiratory disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 85:762–768Google Scholar
  5. Becker J, Heil W, Krug B et al. (1994) Study of mechanical compression of spin-polarized 3He gas. Nucl Instrum Methods A 346:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker J, Bermuth J, Ebert M et al. (1998) Interdisciplinary experiments with polarized 3He. Nucl Instrum Methods A 402:327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhalla M, Turcios N, Aponte V et al. (1991) Cystic fibrosis: scoring system with thin section CT. Radiology 179:783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black RD, Middleton HD, Cates GD et al. (1996) In vivo He-3 MR images of guinea pig lungs. Radiology 199:867–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carr JJ, Reed JC, Choplin RH, Pope TL Jr, Case LD (1992) Plain and computed radiography for detecting experimentally induced pneumothorax in cadavers: implications for detection in patients. Radiology 183:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen XJ, Chawla MS, Hedlund LW, Möller HE, MacFall JR, Johnson GA (1998) MR microscopy of lung airways with hyperpolarized 3-He. Magn Reson Med 39:79–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colegrove FD, Schearer LD, Walters GK (1963) Polarisation of He3 gas by optical pumping. Phys Rev 132:2561–2572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooper JD, Trulock EP, Triantafillou AN et al. (1995) Bilateral pneumonectomy (volume reduction) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 109:106–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Darasse L, Guillot G, Nacher PJ, Tastevin G (1997) Low-field 3He nuclear magnetic resonance in human lungs. CR Acad Sci II B 324:691–700Google Scholar
  14. DeLange EE, Mugler JP, Brookeman JR et al. (1999) Lung air spaces: MR imaging evaluation with hyperpolarized 3He gas. Radiology 210:851–857Google Scholar
  15. Deninger AJ, Eberle B, Ebert M et al. (1999) Quantification of regional intrapulmonary oxygen partial pressure evolution during apnea. J Magn Reson Imaging 141:207–216Google Scholar
  16. Donnelly LF, Gelfand MJ, Brody AS, Wilmont RW (1997) Comparison between morphologic changes seen on high-resolution CT and regional pulmonary perfusion seen on SPECT in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Radiol 27:920–925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Donnelly LF, MacFall JR, McAdams HP et al. (1999) Cystic fibrosis: combined hyperpolarized 3He-enhanced and conventional proton MR imaging in the lung-preliminary observation. Radiology 212:885–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Driehuys B, Cates GD, Miron E, Sauer K, Walter DK, Happer W (1996) High-volume production of laser-polarized 129Xe. Appl Phys Lett 69:1668–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durand E, Guillot G, Darrasse L, Tastevin G, Nacher PJ, Vignaud A, Vattolo D, Bittoun J (2002) CPMG measurements and ultrafast imaging in human lungs with hyperpolarized helium-3 at low field (0.1 T). Magn Reson Med 47:75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eberle B, Weiler N, Markstaller K et al. (1999) Analysis of intrapulmonary O2 concentration by MR imaging of inhaled hyperpolarised 3He. J Appl Phys 87:2043–2052Google Scholar
  21. Ebert M, Großmann T, Heil W et al. (1996) Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging on humans using hyperpolarised 3He. Lancet 347:1297–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans JW, Wagner PD (1977) Limits on VA/Q distribution from analysis of experimental inert gas elimination. J Appl Physiol 42:588–599Google Scholar
  23. Frahm J, Haase A, Matthaei D (1986) Rapid NMR imaging of dynamic processes using the FLASH technique. Magn Reson Med 3:321–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gast KK, Puderback MU, Rodriguez I et al. (2002a) Dynamic ventilation (3)He-magnetic resonance imaging with lung motion correction: gas flow distribution analysis. Invest Radiol 37:126–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gast KK, Viallon M, Eberle B et al. (2002b) MRI in lung transplant recipients using hyperpolarized 3He: comparison with CT. J Magn Reson Imaging 15:268–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gentile TR, Jones GL, Thompson AK et al. (2000) Demonstration of a compact compressor for application of metastability-exchange optical pumping of 3He to human lung imaging. Magn Reson Med 43:290–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gierada DS, Hakimian S, Slone RM, Yusen RD (1998) MR analysis of lung volume and thoracic dimensions in patients with emphysema before and after lung volume reduction surgery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:707–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gierada DS, Saam B, Yablonskiy D, Cooper JD, Lefrak SS, Conradi MS (2000) Dynamic echo planar MR imaging of lung ventilation with hyperpolarized 3He in normal subjects and patients with severe emphysema. NMR Biomed 13:176–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodson BM (2002) Nuclear magnetic resonance of laserpolarized noble gases in molecules, materials, and organisms. J Magn Reson 155:157–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guenther D, Eberle B, Hast J et al (2000) 3-He MRI in healthly volunteers: preliminary correlation with smoking history and lung volumes. NMR Biomed 13:182–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heil W, Humblot Otten EW, Schäfer M, Surkau R, Leduc M (1995) Very long nuclear relaxation times of spin polarized helium 3 in metal coated cells. Phys Lett A 201:337–343Google Scholar
  32. Johnson GA, Cates G, Chen XJ et al. (1997) Dynamics of magnetization in hyperpolarized gas MRI of the lung. Magn Reson Med 38:66–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson GA, Cofer GP, Hedlund LW, Maronpot RR, Suddarth SA (2001) Registered 1H and 3He magnetic resonance microscopy of the lung. Magn Reson Med 45:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kastler A (1950) Quelques suggestions concernant la production optique et la detection optique d’une inégalité de population des niveaux de quantification spatiale des atomes. Application à l’expérience de Stern et Gerlach et à la resonance magnétique. J Phys Radium 11:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kauczor HU, Hofmann D, Kreitner KF et al. (1996) Normal and abnormal pulmonary ventilation: visualization at hyperpolarized He-3 MR imaging. Radiology 201:564–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kauczor HU, Ebert M, Kreitner KF et al. (1997) Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease. J Magn Reson Imaging 7:538–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kauczor HU, Chen XJ, Beek EJR van, Schreiber W (2001) Pulmonary ventilation imaged by MRI: at the doorstep of clinical application. Eur Respir J 17:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MacFall JR, Charles HC, Black RD et al. (1996) Human lung air spaces: potential for MR imaging with hyperpolarized He-3. Radiology 200:553–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Mai VM, Liu B, Li W et al. (2002) Influence of oxygen flow rate on signal and T(l) changes in oxygen-enhanced ventilation imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 16:37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mata J, Altes T, Christopher J, Mugler J, Brookeman J, Lange E de (2001) Positional dependence of small inferior ventilation defects seen on hyperpolarized helium-3 MR of the lung. Proc ISMRM 9:949Google Scholar
  41. McAdams HP, Palmer SM, Donnelly LF, Charles HC, Tapson VF, MacFall JR (1999) Hyperpolarized 3He-enhanced MR imaging in lung transplant patients: preliminary results. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173:955–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Middleton H, Black RD, Saam B et al. (1995) MR imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas. Magn Reson Med 33:271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miron E, Schaefer S, Schreiber D, Wijngaarden WA van, Zeng X, Happer W (1984) Polarisation of the nuclear spins of noble-gas atoms by spin exchange with optically pumped alkali-metal atoms. Phys Rev A 29:3092–3110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mugler JP, Driehuys B, Brookeman JR et al. (1997) MR imaging and spectroscopy using hyperpolarized 129Xe gas: preliminary human results. Magn Reson Med 37:809–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mugler JP, Brookeman JR, Knight-Scott J, Maier T, Lange EE de, Bogorad PL (1998) Interleaved echo-planar imaging of the lungs with hyperpolarized 3He. Proc ISMRM 6:448Google Scholar
  46. Mugler JP, Salerno M, Lange EE de, Brookeman JR (2002) Optimized TrueFISP hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the lung yields a 3-fold SNR increase compared to FLASH. Proc ISMRM 10:2019Google Scholar
  47. Nacher PJ, Tastevin G, Maître X, Dollat X, Lemaire B, Olejnik J (1999) A peristaltic compressor for hyperpolarized helium. Eur Radiol 9:B18Google Scholar
  48. Nathanson I, Conboy K, Murphy S, Afshani E, Kuhn JP (1991) Ultrafast computerized tomography of the chest in cystic fibrosis: a new scoring system. Pediatr Pulmonol 11:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paradis I (1998) Bronchiolitis obliterans: pathogenesis, prevention and management. Am J Med Sci 315:161–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piepsz A, Wetzburger C, Spehl M (1980) Critical evaluation of lung scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis. J Nucl Med 21:909–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC (1993) Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows: report of the working party standardization of lung function tests. European community for steel and coal-official statement of the European respiratory society. Eur Respir J 6 [Suppl 16]:5–20Google Scholar
  52. Riederer SJ, Tasciyan T, Farzaneh F, Lee JN, Wright RC, Herfkens RJ (1988) MR fluoroscopy: technical feasibility. Magn Reson Med 8:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rizi RR, Baumgardner JE, Saha PK et al. (2001) Regional lung compliance by hyperpolarized 3helium magnetic resonance imaging. Proc ISMRM 9:944Google Scholar
  54. Roberts DA, Rizi RR, Lipson DA et al. (2000) Detection and localization of pulmonary air leaks using laser-polarized 3He MRI. Magn Reson Med 44:379–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roca J, Wagner PD (1994) Principles and information content of the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Thorax 49:815–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rodriguez-Roisin R (1994) Contribution of multiple inert gas elimination technique to pulmonary medicine. Thorax 49:813–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ruppert K, Brookeman JR, Mugler JP (1998) Real-time MR imaging of pulmonary gas-flow dynamics with hyperpolarized 3He. Proc ISMRM: 1909Google Scholar
  58. Saam B, Happer W, Middleton H (1995) Nuclear relaxation of 3He in the presence of 02. Phys Rev A 52:862–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saam B, Yablonskiy DA, Gierada DS, Conradi MS (1999) Rapid imaging of hyperpolarized gas using EPI. Magn Reson Med 42:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sakai K, Bilek AM, Oteiza E et al. (1996) Temporal dynamics of hyperpolarized 129Xe resonances in living rats. J Magn Reson B 111:300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Salerno M, Altes TA, Brookeman JR, Lange EE de, Mugler JP III (2001) Dynamic spiral MR imaging of pulmonary gas flow using hyperpolarized 3He: preliminary studies in healthy and diseased lungs. Magn Reson Med 46:667–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schreiber WG, Weiler N, Kauczor HU et al. (2000) Ultraschnelle MRT der Lungenventilation mittels hochpolarisiertem Helium-3. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 172:129–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tseng CH, Wong GP, Pomeroy VR et al. (1998) Low-field MRI of laser polarized noble gas. Phys Rev Lett 81:3785–3788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Vaals JJ, Brummer ME, Dixon WT et al. (1993) “Keyhole” method for accelerating imaging of contrast agent uptake. J Magn Reson Imaging 3:671–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Viallon M, Cofer GP, Suddarth SA et al. (1999) Functional MR microscopy of the lung using hyperpolarized 3He. Magn Reson Med 41:787–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Viallon M, Berthezene Y, Callot V et al. (2000) Dynamic imaging of hyper-polarised (3)He distribution in rat lungs using interleaved-spiral scans. NMR Biomed 13:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wagner PD, Rodriguez-Roisin R (1991) Clinical advances in pulmonary gas exchange. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Wagner PD, Smith CM, Davies NJH, McEvoy RD, Gale GE (1985) Estimation of ventilation-perfusion inequality by inert gas elimination without arterial sampling. J Appl Physiol 59:376–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wagshul ME, Button TM, Li HF et al. (1996) In vivo MR imaging and spectroscopy using hyperpolarized 129Xe. Magn Reson Med 36:183–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walker TG, Happer W (1997) Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei. Rev Mod Phys 69:629–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wild JM, Paley MNH, Viallon M, Schreiber WG, Beek EJR van, Griffiths PD (2002a) K-Space filtering in 2D gradient echo breath-hold hyperpolarized 3He MRI: spatial resolution and signal to noise considerations. Magn Reson Med 47: 687–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wild JM, Schmiedeskamp J, Paley MNJ et al. (2002b) MR imaging of the lungs with hyperpolarized 3-helium transported by air. Phys Med Biol 47:N185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wild JM, Fichele S, Woodhouse N, Paley MNJ, Swift AJ, Kasuboski L, Beek EJR van (2003a) Assessment and compensation of susceptibility artifacts in gradient echo MRI of hyperpolarized 3He gas. Magn Reson Med 50:417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wild JM, Paley MNJ, Kasuboski L, Swift AJ, Fichele S, Woodhouse N, Griffiths PD, Beek EJR van (2003b) Dynamic radial projection MRI of inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas. Magn Reson Med 49:991–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wong GP, Tseng CH, Pomeroy VR et al. (1999) A system for low field imaging of laser-polarized noble gas. J Magn Reson 141:217–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Woodhouse N, Wild JM, Fichele S et al. (2002) Measurement of a reduction in the effective lung volume of a smoker as measured by combined proton single shot fast spin echo/ hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI. Proc Br Chap ISMRM 58Google Scholar
  77. Zaporohan J, Ley S, Gast K et al. (2002) Aerated versus ventilated lung: Value of the 3He MRI and CT. Proc ISMRM 10:132Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin J. R. van Beek
    • 1
  • Andrew Swift
    • 1
  • Jim M. Wild
    • 1
  1. 1.Academic Unit of Radiology, Floor CRoyal Hallamshire HospitalSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations