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Optical Spectroscopy

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Abstract

The method of spectroscopy, using a suitable light source and spectral apparatus for radiation analysis, has its natural field of application in the determination of the general energy-level structure in the energy range corresponding to UV, visible and IR light. The energy-level scheme for atoms and ions of many different charge states has been established from spectral analysis in different wavelength regions, as discussed in Chap. 2. Many of the observed spectral lines are listed in standard monographs [6.16.5]. Hyperfine structure can also be studied in many cases using high-resolution instruments. The first observations of hyperfine structure in optical spectra were made at the end of the 19th century by A. Michelson (1891) and by Ch. Fabry and A. Pérot (1897). An interpretation of the structure was put forward at the end of the 1920s. The optical method for studies of hyperfine structure is particularly suitable when unpaired s-electrons are present (large hyperfine structure). A large number of nuclei have been studied with regard to nuclear spin and moments through the years. Many radioactive isotopes have also been studied using very small samples. Although the classical optical method has low accuracy, compared with resonance methods (Chap. 7) or laser techniques (Chap. 9), its field of application is wide. A very large number of excited levels can be studied through the structure in the large number of lines emitted by a light source. The structure in spectral lines, connecting a ground state or a well-populated metastable state with higher-lying, short-lived states, can also be studied in absorption experiments, in which the atomic absorption in a continuous spectral distribution is recorded. The techniques of classical optical spectroscopy have been covered in [6.66.8].

Keywords

Spectral Line Optical Spectroscopy Hubble Space Telescope Free Spectral Range Continuum Light Source 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden

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