Promoting Democracy as a Security Goal. The ‘inward-outward’ Paradox of the EU’s Foreign Policy
This chapter looks at the influence of domestic political processes and public opinion in the framing of EU foreign policy. In doing so, policies which have been aimed at achieving regional security by means of promoting internal reforms are evaluated. The chapter emphasizes a mismatch between security concerns amongst policy-makers2 and public opinion.3 An increased concern on foreign policy-related issues (from domestic constituencies) it seems follows a similar pattern to the erosion of the ‘permissive consensus’ (Lindberg/Scheingold 1971) in the past decade.4 There is strong opposition in many member states (MS) towards the effects of policies which comprise the extension of the ‘four freedoms’ (of capital, labour, goods, and services). The latter are the main incentives offered by both enlargement and New Neighbourhood strategies. This is relevant inasmuch as it suffices for public opinion to constrain a few MS for European foreign policy (EFP) as a whole to be affected. Since most areas in EFP are intergovernmental, a single member can in principle block or alter a common position.5 Thus, the influence of domestic pressures should not be overlooked.
KeywordsPublic Opinion Foreign Policy Veto Player Candidate Country Security Goal
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