Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Its Applications in Hydraulics: A State-of-the-Art Review

  • Cristiana Di Cristo
Part of the Geoplanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences book series (GEPS, volume 1)


This chapter is an overview presentation of the Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique, actually widely used in hydraulics. This technique has the important advantage of measuring an entire velocity field nonintrusively. In particular, after a brief description of the historical development and the basic principles of the method, some representative applications of the PIV technique in hydraulic research are presented.


Particle Image Velocimetry Tracer Particle Light Sheet Particle Tracking Velocimetry Particle Image Velocimetry System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Admiral DM, Stansbury JS, Haberrman CJ (2004) Case study: particle velocimetry in a model of Lake Ogallala. J Hydraul Eng 130(7):599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Admiral DM, Musalem-Jara R, Garcia M, Nino Y (2006) Vortex trajectory hysteresis above self-formed vortex ripples. J Hydraul Res 44(4):437–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adrian RJ (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 23:261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adrian RJ (2005) Twenty years of particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 39:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agui JC, Jimenez J (1997) On the performance of particle tracking. J Fluid Mech 185:447–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell L, McEwan I, Nikora V, Pokrajac D, Gallagher M, Manes C (2005) Bed-load effects on hydrodynamic of rough-bed open-channel flows. J Hydraul Eng 131(7):576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cenedese A, Doglia G, Romano GP, De Michele G, Tanzini G (1994) LDA and PIV velocimetry measurements in free jets. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 9:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coupland JM, Halliwell NA (1992) Particle image velocimetry: three dimensional fluid velocity measurements using holographic recording and optical correlation. Appl Opt 31:1005–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cowen NL, Monismith SG (1997) A hybrid digital particle tracking velocimetry technique. Exp Fluids 22:199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cowen EA, Sou IM, Liu PL, Raubenheimer B (2003) Particle image velocimetry measurements within a laboratory-generated swash zone. J Eng Mech 129(10):1119–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crouser PD, Bethea MD, Merat FL (1997) Unattenuated tracer particle extraction through time-averaged, background image subtraction with outlier rejection. Exp Fluids 22:220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deen N, Westerweel J, Delnoij E (2002) Two-phase PIV in bubbly flows: status and tends. Chem Eng Technol 25(1):97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Di Cristo C, Muste M (2002) Experimental study on liquid and suspended sediment turbulence characteristics in open-channel flows. In: 5th international symposium on engineering turbulence modelling and measurements. Elsevier, Mallorca, pp 979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ettema R, Fujita I, Muste M, Kruger A (1997) Particle-image velocimetry for whole-field measurement of ice velocities. Cold Region Sci Technol 26(2):97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferreira RM, Amatruda M, Ricardo AM, Franca MJ, Di Cristo C (2010) Production and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the roughness layer. Proceedings of the I European IAHR conference, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  16. Fouras A, Dusting J, Hourigan K (2007) A simple calibration technique for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 42:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fuijta I, Hino T (2007) PIV measurements of large-scale river surface flow during flood by using a high resolution video camera from a helicopter. Proceedings of Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods Conference, ASCE-IAHR, Lake Placid, pp 344–349Google Scholar
  18. Fuijta I, Kaizu T (1995) Correction method of erroneous vectors in PIV. J Flow Vis Image Process 2:173–185Google Scholar
  19. Fuijta I, Muste M, Kruger A (1998) Large-scale particle image velocimetry for flow analysis in hydraulic engineering application. J Hydraul Res 36(3):397–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuijta I, Watanabe H, Tsubaki R (2007) Development of a non-intrusive and efficient flow monitoring technique: the Space Time Image Velocimetry (STIV). Int J River Basin Manage 5(2):105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gaydon M, Raffel M, Willert C, Rosengarten M, Kompenhans J (1997) Hybrid stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 23:331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grizzi S, Pereira F, De Felice F (2010) A simplified, flow based calibration method for stereoscopic PIV. Exp Fluids 48:473–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guezennec YG, Kiritsis N (1990) Statistical investigation of errors in particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 10:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gui L, Merzkirch W (1996) A method for tracking ensembles of particle images. Exp Fluids 21(6):465–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gui L, Merzkirch W (1998) Generating arbitrary sized interrogation windows for correlation-based analysis of particle image velocimetry recordings. Exp Fluids 24:66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hassan YA, Blanchat TK, Seeley CH, Canaan RE (1992) Simultaneous velocity measurements of both components of a two-phase flow using particle image velocimetry. Int J Multiph Flow 18(3):371–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hauet A, Kruger A, Krajewski WF, Bradley A, Muste M, Creutin J, Wilson M (2008) Experimental system for real-time discharge estimation using an image-based method. J Hydrol Eng 13(2):105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hetsroni G (1989) Particles–turbulence interaction. Int J Multiph Flow 15(5,):735–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim Y, Muste M, Hauet A, Krajewski W, Kruger A, Bradley A (2008) Stream discharge using mobile large-scale particle image velocimetry: a proof of concept. Water Resour Res 44:W09502. doi: 0.1029/2006WR005441, 6 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Landreth CC, Adrian RJ, Yao CS (1988) Double pulsed particle image velocimeter with directional resolution for complex flows. Exp Fluids 6:119–128Google Scholar
  31. Lennon JM, Hill DF (2006) Particle image measurements of undular and hydraulic jumps. J Hydraul Eng 132(2):1283–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindken R, Merzkirch W (2002) A novel PIV technique for measurements in multiphase flows and its application to two-phase bubbly flows. Exp Fluids 33:814–825Google Scholar
  33. Liu Z, Landreth CC, Adrian RJ, Hanratty TJ (1991) High resolution measurement of turbulent structure in a channel with particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 10:301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lloyd PM, Stansby PK, Ball DJ (1995) Unsteady surface-velocity field measurement using particle tracking velocimetry. J Hydraul Res 33(4):519–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manes C, Pokrajac D, McEwan I (2007) Double averaged open-channel flows with small relative submergence. J Hydraul Eng 133(8):896–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Melling A (1997) Tracer particles and seeding for particle image velocimetry. Meas Sci Technol 8:1406–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Muller G, Bruce T, Kauppert K (2002) Particle image velocimetry: a simple technique for complex surface flows. Proceedings of River Flow conference, Louvein, pp 1227–1234Google Scholar
  38. Muste M, Fuijta I, Kruger A (1998) Experimental comparison of two laser-based velocimeters for flows with alluvial sand. Exp Fluids 24:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muste M, Xiong Z, Schone J, Li Z (2004) Validation and extension of image velocimetry capabilities for flow diagnostics in hydraulic modeling. J Hydraul Eng 130(3):175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nishino K, Kasagi N, Hirata M (1989) Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry based on automated digital image processing. J Fluids Eng 111:384–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Okamoto TA, Nezu I (2009) Turbulence structure and “Monami” phenomena in flexible vegetated open channel flows. J Hydraul Res 47(6):275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Perret L, Braud P, Fourment C, David L, Delville J (2006) 3-components acceleration field measurement by dual-time stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 40(5):813–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prasad AK, Adrian RJ (1993) Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry applied to liquid flows. Exp Fluids 15:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raffael M, Willert C, Kompenhans J (2007) Particle image velocimetry – practical guide. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  45. Sakakibara J, Wicker R, Eaton J (1996) Measurements of particle-fluid velocity correlation and the extra dissipation in a round jet. Int J Multiph Flow 22(5):863–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sanjou M, Nezu I (2009) Turbulence structure and coherent motion in meandering compound open-channel flows. J Hydraul Res 47(5):598–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seol DG, Bhaumik T, Bergmann C, Socolofsky SA (2007) Particle image velocimetry measurements of the mean flow characteristics in bubble plume. J Eng Mech 133(6):665–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stevens C, Coates M (1994) Application of a maximised cross-correlation technique for resolving velocity fields in laboratory experiments. J Hydraul Res 32(2):105–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tsikata JM, Tachie MF, Katopodis C (2009) Particle image velocimetry study of flow near trashrack models. J Hydraul Eng 135(8):671–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weibrecht V, Kuhm G, Jirka GH (2002) Large scale PIV-measurements at the surface of shallow water flows. Flow Meas Instrum 13:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weibrecht V, Socolofsky SA, Jirka GH (2008) Experiments on mass exchange between groin fields and main stream in rivers. J Hydraul Eng 134(2):173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Willert CE, Gharib M (1991) Digital particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 10:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu Z, Zhu J, Chen S, Yang L, Xu H, Yang Y (1991) An image processing system for quantitatively analyzing the 2D fluid velocity-field image. Comput Fluids 20:359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zweifel A, Hager WH, Minor HE (2006) Plane impulse waves in reservoirs. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 132(5):358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CassinoCassinoItaly

Personalised recommendations