Near Fields and QED

  • Ole KellerEmail author
Part of the Nano-Optics and Nanophotonics book series (NON, volume 2)


In the famous Drei–Männer–Arbeit from 1926, one of the central papers on matrix mechanics, Born, Heisenberg, and Jordan quantized the free radiation field [292]. For simplicity, they worked in one space dimension and ignored the polarization of the electromagnetic waves. As anticipated by Ehrenfest twenty years earlier [293], the field behaves like a sum of independent harmonic oscillators. Upon quantization, the photon and (infinite) zero-point energy concepts entered the stage. The Drei–Männer–Arbeit, together with Dirac’s studies of the spontaneous emission process [294, 295], mark the birth of quantum electrodynamics (QED), and in a broader sense quantum field theory [296, 297, 298, 299]ll other fundamental “particles” are elementary quantum excitations of some sort of underlying field [156, 157].


Coulomb Gauge Longitudinal Electric Field Transverse Photon Lorentz Equation Relativistic Quantum Field Theory 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut for FysikAalborg UniversitetAalborgDenmark

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